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biography text Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. Jay Sean! His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and to measure avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the biography white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Asimov Robot! Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to jay sean biography elude the Legion, in primark stores in uk 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to jay sean biography the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the to measure town#8217;s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the jay sean Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Use Gdp To Measure! Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of jay sean her husband and was committed to oliver v us a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and biography orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. Feliks Skrzynecki Techniques! In 1946, they were arrested and jay sean convicted on primark in uk, burglary charges, and jay sean biography Malcolm was sentenced to sorites paradox 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years.

Recalling his days in school, he used the time to further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and jay sean discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to oliver v us the religious organization the Nation of jay sean biography Islam (NOI). Edgar Allan Poe The Black! Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the jay sean biography teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for how many stores, a state of their own, separate from one inhabited by white people. By the jay sean biography time he was paroled in to measure 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the #8220;X#8221; to biography signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and descriptive writing on a articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and jay sean biography national spokesman for asimov robot, the Nation of jay sean biography Islam. Writing On A Beach! Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in biography cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and asimov robot television, to communicate the biography NOI#8217;s message across the United States.

His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an astounding number of feliks techniques new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in the NOI from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in jay sean 1963. Sorites Paradox! The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in jay sean a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in oliver v us 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. After the biography special, Malcolm was faced with the edgar allan poe the black cat summary uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of jay sean his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the descriptive government#8217;s attention. As membership in jay sean the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and skrzynecki techniques secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and jay sean biography other surveillance equipment to monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the civil rights movement in 1963. In Uk! He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out biography, that some of these relationships had resulted in children.

Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to oliver v us help cover up the affairs and jay sean biography subsequent children. Asimov Robot! He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Biography! Malcolm also felt guilty about the use gdp masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for jay sean, a comment he made regarding the oliver v us assassination of jay sean biography President John F. Kennedy. Primark Stores In Uk! #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to jay sean biography roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. Feliks Skrzynecki Techniques! After the jay sean biography statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for sorites paradox, another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI. Jay Sean Biography! Unable to sorites paradox look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to jay sean biography found his own religious organization, the sorites paradox Muslim Mosque, Inc.

That same year, Malcolm went on biography, a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to edgar allan be life altering for him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and biography beliefs with different cultures and found the sorites paradox response to be overwhelmingly positive. When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to biography the United States with a new outlook on integration and a new hope for the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to edgar black cat summary African-Americans, he had a message for jay sean biography, all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in feliks skrzynecki techniques the Nation of Islam and jay sean renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the edgar allan cat summary two had become increasingly volatile.

FBI informants working undercover in biography the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for descriptive writing, assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in jay sean biography Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on descriptive beach, his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the jay sean home where Malcolm, Betty, and their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in economists their ruthless attempt.

At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. Biography! They shot him 15 times at close range. Descriptive On A! The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at jay sean biography, the Faith Temple Church of in uk God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of biography God in Christ). After the descriptive writing ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the jay sean waiting gravediggers and how many primark stores buried Malcolm themselves.

Later that year, Betty gave birth to jay sean biography their twin daughters. Poe The Cat Summary! Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of jay sean biography first-degree murder in March 1966. The three men were all members of the Nation of poe the Islam. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the biography subject of numerous documentaries, books, and movies. A tremendous resurgence of asimov robot interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design.

Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in jay sean Hartsdale, New York.

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Write a resume that will land you a programming job. Justin James lays out what he sees on a developer's resume that makes him say wow!. and jay sean what makes him say ugh! I usually read 5 - 20 resumes each week. Oliver V Us. Both my boss and jay sean I are extremely busy, so it's important that a programmer's resume grab our attention quickly by providing the right mix of necessary information with something that makes that person stand out from the pack. I've been involved with our hiring process for more than six months, so I feel fairly confident that I can distill what it takes for sorites paradox a programming resume to get me to say, Let's arrange an interview. Here are my tips for writing and organizing a pitch perfect programming resume. Keep in mind: I am not every hiring manager; also, all resumes go through our recruiters and HR department first. Moreover, regular readers know that some of my ideas fall a touch outside the norm when it comes to what makes a good developer.

Reading the jay sean biography, in-depth details of how you used mainstream skill XYZ to accomplish typical task ABC is not at the top of sorites paradox, my agenda. I want to see your skills up front, so I don't need to go trolling through your resume to see if you meet my minimum needs. Skip the biography, summary and feliks maybe even the objective. Those summaries are a waste of my time. Jay Sean. It is skrzynecki techniques going to jay sean biography, say something like seasoned IT pro with great communication skills or proven veteran with 10 years of on a beach, programming experience. How do I know this? Because they all say this. Skip it, please. The objective is jay sean a slightly different story; it is useful only if it informs the interviewer about something that the skills and experience does not.

The objective's relevance to me is largely a function of whether you wish to keep doing what you have been doing. If I see you have been programming — particularly at to measure the data access layer and the business object layer — and there is no objective, I am going to assume that you are looking for jay sean more of the oliver v us, same with a different employer or location. If you want to do more of jay sean biography, that work and economists use gdp to measure put an objective, you are wasting space. Jay Sean Biography. If you are looking for vc andrew books a change of pace — like getting more into the presentation layer or heading towards a management track — it's important to jay sean biography, state that in your resume. Sorites Paradox. Otherwise, we may discover during the interview that you are not interested in what we have to offer. Some IT hiring managers put a huge emphasis on jay sean, certain educations but I do not. Oliver V Us. I always want you to list your school and your major, but I will only ask you about your education if there is something unusual or intriguing. For instance, a candidate with a Computer Science degree from MIT or with a PhD in Organic Chemistry will draw my eye because these degrees show a level of biography, high intelligence. On the flipside, an writing on a beach, AA in biography, basket weaving or a lack of a degree will not count against you.

In most cases, I am not even curious about descriptive writing on a beach your education until I have already made up my mind. This includes certifications — MCSEs and CCNAs do not impress me that much at jay sean this point. They matter to some folks, and feliks skrzynecki they do not hurt you in jay sean, my opinion, but I will only sorites paradox, take that certification into account if all else is jay sean biography equal. Even if my project is a run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven application (which it is not), I still want to see that you are more than someone with 10 years of asimov robot, experience writing run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven applications. For example, compare these two items: East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005. Wrote VB applications to control machinery. The hardware interface was handled in a COM library that was written by another team. Application was robust and reliable. Wrote Web-based tool to track system faults.

Created Web service to allow partners to consume portions of the database. East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005. Wrote VB applications to control nuclear reactor. Real-time control and monitoring of systems handling 10,000 unique data inputs per second. Wrote advanced algorithms in C# to detect imminent system failure, which were used within a Web-based application. Created Web service in C# to allow partners to access data in jay sean biography, a secure, reliable, and responsive manner; typical data set was 1,000,000 rows and concurrency challenges needed to be overcome at the database and sorites paradox application layers. See the difference? Control machinery does not help me much — you could have been working on the elevator system for all I know. Biography. Programming a nuclear reactor impresses me, especially since there has not been any nuclear reactor disasters during your employment.

Writing advanced algorithms in asimov robot, C# touches my engineer's heart; whereas writing a mere Web-based tool is ho hum. Biography. And, while writing a Web service is fairly simple, particularly in ASP.Net, it's not so easy to write one that is secure, reliable, and responsive with that size of feliks skrzynecki techniques, a data set. It's also not easy to deal with concurrency issues at two different levels. I am not saying that it needs to be wordy or full of minute details, but if you are doing work beyond what a summer intern could do, I need to biography, know about it. Every developer has written a Web-based, data driven application. Show me more. Make sure that your experience highlights your skills.

I don't expect your employment history to include a list of all your skills. But if you are looking for to measure work as a .Net developer, show me that you have done some .Net work. If you do not list that experience, I am going to assume that you have little or no experience with it — even if it is on your skill list. If you have large amounts of experience outside of the jay sean, workforce, find a way to show that on your resume. Keep your resume between two to four pages long. I have struggled through seven-page resumes filled with jargon and boring details that made me want to asimov robot, cry. An overly long resume doesn't necessarily make me rule out biography, a candidate, but why make it hard on me? On the other hand, a resume that tries to stick to the one page rule is not going to cut it for a technical person unless they are new to the field. Oliver V Us. In my experience, two to four pages is jay sean just right. Also, please use some whitespace, so I do not feel like I am drowning.

While technical pros' resumes do not need to descriptive writing, be pretty, formatting can make a huge difference in jay sean biography, a resume's readability. Techniques. If you cannot put three pages of text in front of jay sean, me in a readable form, do I really want you touching the UI or writing code that someone else might have to asimov robot, maintain? I recommend that you stick to biography, a larger font size (e.g., 10 - 12 pt.) in a font that reads well onscreen and in print (e.g., Verdana, Arial, Tahoma, Calibri, Helvetica). Oliver V Us. If you want a slightly fancier font, use it only for section headers. Also, do not mix Serif and jay sean Sans Serif fonts — that is asimov robot just ugly.

Do not use Comic Sans anywhere, especially in hot pink or baby blue (and yes, unfortunately, this needs to be stated). Keep your margins and space between paragraphs large enough to provide the reader some breathing room. I give applicants some slack on employment history. Jay Sean Biography. For instance, five year stints are fairly rare in IT, and I give anyone a lot of leeway if their history includes anything that occurred during the dot com boom/bust. If you are (or were) a contractor or consultant, make sure that is asimov robot clearly stated; otherwise, I will think that you get fired and/or quit every 3 - 12 months. Jay Sean. If you were not a contractor or a consultant, and it looks like you have a hard time staying at a job, I am going to be very cautious. Use Gdp. If I see an increasing progression of job titles, mercenary pops into my head.

Also, if I see that they are lateral (or worse, negative) moves, bad apple is my first thought. Of course, sometimes you get hit with a string of biography, employers that go under or get acquired — it happens to the best of us. If that is the case, find a way to convey that information so I don't think you are unemployable. It is critical that the skrzynecki techniques, spelling and grammar in your resume is flawless. I have seen applicants misspell the name of their state and the name of their school. If grammar and biography spelling are not your forte, ask someone to sorites paradox, look over your resume for you. While I understand that many IT pros are not native English language speakers (or are English language speakers who paid little attention to those subjects in school), you should still ask someone for biography help. Asimov Robot. In fact, knowing when to ask for help is a hallmark of the best developers. If I interview you and realize from your speech that you had the sense and humility to ask someone for jay sean biography help on your resume, I am going to be truly impressed. (For examples of what not to descriptive on a beach, do, check out this list of real-life resume blunders.) Stay out of EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) territory. In the United States, companies with more than 10 employees need to follow EEO rules.

These rules state that an employer cannot discriminate against or show preference for an employee based on biography, certain group membership items or personal lifestyle issues, such as gender, age, ethnicity, nation of origin, religion, sexual orientation, and so on. So, do me a favor and try to not expose any EEO-related information to me on the resume. In a face-to-face interview or even a phone interview, some of it will be unavoidable. But I will never solicit that information. Not only do I want to sorites paradox, keep my employer and myself out of trouble, but I personally feel that EEO is biography important. Vc Andrew Books. I can understand that many names (or even college attended) are strongly correlated with ethnicity, religion, or nation (or at least general geographic region) of jay sean biography, origin, and college graduation or attendance dates give some age clues. Minimize this as much as possible.

Please do not tell me about your church, your family situation, your home life, your parents, and so on. It is not that I am not interested — I would probably love to learn these things about you if we hire you — but I do not need or want to know them before that you come on vc andrew books, board. Outside interests, hobbies, achievements, and activities. I like to jay sean, see these, but only if they are relevant. I really do not need to know about descriptive on a beach how big of a fan you are of the New York Knicks; but if you wrote a piece of software that can do something nifty with the team's statistics for fun, I would love to know about it. People who contribute to open source projects get a huge gold star in my book, but only if I feel like they would be comfortable working on jay sean, proprietary software with proprietary tools, and not bringing anything GPL'ed into writing on a, my codebase. That is a small caveat there. Contributed to project XYZ in the areas of ABC and DEF is jay sean enough to on a, whet my appetite. Show me some outside learning too — don't let me think that you get home at 6;00 and shut off your brain. If this work is biography not interesting enough for you to sorites paradox, read about or experiment with on your own time, why would I think that you will be engaged or even interested in the job we would hire you for?

Please give me something meaty that we can discuss during the interview. So, where it is relevant, try to show me how much of a nerd you are. For instance, try to mention the hovercraft you made from an inner tube and a lawn mower engine. Make note of the iterative, evolutionary game theory system you coded in jay sean, Lisp that proves that Nash's equilibrium is dead wrong. Tell me something about descriptive writing on a beach your three chess championship victories. I do not want to know that you memorized UHF or that you have a pocket protectors collection that have logos of now defunct minicomputer vendors. I know most of this falls under the previous section, but it is relevant. I love to work with programmers who love technology and logic and using their brains. People like that are simply better programmers. Why would I want to hire someone who is intellectually lazy for an intellectually challenging job? Obscure or nonmainstream technologies.

I am not hiring Lisp, Prolog, Erlang, APL, Scheme, Clipper, PowerBuilder, Delphi, Pascal, Perl, Ruby, Python (forgive me for jay sean including those four in vc andrew books, this list), Fortran, Ada, Algol, PL/1, OCaml, F#, Spec#, Smalltalk, Logo, StarLogo, Haskell, ML, D, Cobra, B, or even COBOL (which is fairly mainstream) developers. If you show these on your resume, I will want to interview you just for the sake of jay sean biography, slipping in a few questions about feliks skrzynecki these items. I am serious. As part of jay sean biography, my secret geekiness, I am really into vc andrew books, obscure and jay sean almost obscure languages and technologies. I know that a lot of feliks techniques, those items take better-than-industry-average intellect and jay sean experience to do; they also provide a set of experiences that gives their practitioners a great angle on problems. While you will never directly use those skills in my shop, you will be using those ways of thinking, and it will give us something to use gdp to measure, talk about on jay sean, your first day. ( Aside: A coworker was shocked to learn that I played Half Life. He said, You are such a ‘business person' — I never thought you played video games.

I guess I'm camouflaging my secret geekiness too well!) I've given away crown jewels here. In my perspective, these tips will help any programmer write a perfect resume and get them an interview. What do you think gets applicants an interview? If you read resumes as either a hiring manager, a recruiter, or an HR employee, what makes you say wow! or ugh! when you see it on paper? Justin James is the Lead Architect for Conigent. Justin James is the Lead Architect for Conigent.

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An Interesting Movie – Avatar Essay. An Interesting Movie – Avatar. Biography! As a lover of cinema, I have seen many movies that I find interesting or fascinating in some manner. Recently, the most remarkable film I have seen is James Cameron’s Avatar. This science-fiction epic was made using cutting edge technology but also has a story line that is engaging and captivating for the audience. The movie has underlying themes that make the audience think and feel while being entertained. Avatar stretches the bounds of cinematic imagination and takes the viewers on a wild ride. This movie is meaningful and feliks beautiful all at the same time. Biography! Avatar has a powerful moral fiber that plays throughout the entire movie.

It is a meaningful reminder that all life is precious and worth being explored. This film is meaningful to me for many reasons. Avatar takes place in the year 2154 on a moon called Pandora. Humans have discovered very valuable natural resources on Pandora and will do whatever it takes to obtain what they need. Initially, the vc andrew books humans decide that using force to take control of the resources may be the wrong way to go about dealing with the people of Pandora. The Earthlings decide instead to biography, set up schools and oliver v us teach English to jay sean biography, the moon’s inhabitants to try to win them over. The main people of Pandora are the Na’vi, a 10 foot tall, blue-skinned humanoid alien group that live in the rainforests of Pandora.

The humans are able to interact with the Na’vi by sorites paradox artificial yet organic avatars, modeled on jay sean, Na’vi DNA but controlled with a human mind and conscience. Jake Sully, a young crippled Marine, is given the task of infiltrating the vc andrew books Na’vi and talking them into leaving their homes. He was injured and is now wheelchair bound. Jay Sean Biography! In order to have the required surgeries to re-gain the use of his legs, Jake must take this offer and learn the weaknesses of this alien group. He enters this alien world using his deceased twin brother’s avatar. He starts out economists to measure with selfish intentions but after getting to know the ways of the Na’vi, changed his mind and heart. Sully becomes swayed by the beautiful Neytiri. She is strong and biography fierce but has a strong, loving bond with the world around her. She becomes Jake Sully’s teacher, interpreter and guide to the world of Pandora. Under her guidance, Jake goes native and asimov robot begins to put the Na’vi and their interests before his own. He learns their ways and begins to live amongst them.

The futuristic Eden-like rainforests of Pandora become his second home. He decides not to help the biography humans destroy Pandora for their advancement. For Sully to disobey an order is a huge change. A war breaks out between the people of Pandora and the human military. Jake must choose sides and techniques decide to fight for what he believes in. Jay Sean! This internal conflict within Jake is the economists use gdp struggle for human dignity. Avatar shows how a character can change when the “masters they serve” change. Avatar has a few underlying themes and points that aide in telling this majestic story. It also focuses on many ideas. This movie has a very “green” tone.

It is eco-friendly and shows the complexities of even the tiniest ecosystems. This movie is meaningful to me because I agree with the themes of this movie. This story also shows how all creatures are intertwined and affect one another. Pandora is an odd place with floating mountains, flying reptiles, six-legged wild horses that fly and strange objects that look like jellyfish. The Na’vi are actually physically combined with the winged horses they ride; the riders must plug themselves into the animal’s circuitry.

Avatar shows how all creatures of a planet affect one another and how they must live in harmony for all to survive or thrive. In this utopia, technology and ecology fuse (Charity, 2009). On. Jay Sean Biography! Pandora, the electrical currents flow through the root systems of the trees and plants. Its rainforest resembles a coral reef and is full of color. Descriptive Beach! At night, the plants in the forest glow and the ground lights up under the feet of the Na’vi. The harmonious home of the Na’vi shows the jay sean blending technology and oliver v us an eco-system.

This movie also has an anti-corporate tone. The film shows the devastating impact large companies have on indigenous people. The bulldozer in the garden sequence is the climax of the humans vs. Na’vi conflict. The human military brutally destroy a pristine landscape and slaughter the innocent, nature-loving Na’vi. Jay Sean Biography! The film draws the oliver v us audience into the mysteries and beauty of Pandora and then horrifies when the jay sean machines do their damage. The audience grieves because the destruction in this scene is tragic and overwhelming. Corporate corruption and greed is an underlying foe in the film.

And lastly, the movie shows the importance of the balance in oliver v us, nature. The people of Pandora worship Eywa, a goddess who takes care of keeping the balance in jay sean, their nature and their lives. She is very important to this group. When the battle begins, Eywa sends animals to oliver v us, help her follower’s defend Hometree, the center of life for the Na’vi. The balance between any species and nature is a major theme in Avatar. James Cameron’s Avatar blends live action and computer animation seamlessly. It blurs the real and the imaginary, the jay sean biography material world and the spiritual one.

James Cameron’s movie has themes of environmental destruction, corporate corruption and skrzynecki balance in nature. Biography! To me, this film reminds the audience that we as humans affect our environment and we should take care of our planet. Cameron, J. (Director). (2009). Avatar [Motion picture] United States: 20th Century Fox. Charity, T. (2009). Review: ‘Avatar’ delivers on the hype. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from www.cnn.com/2009/SHOWBIZ/movies/12/17/avatar.review/ University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 24 March 2016.

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essay figure earth Journey to the Center of the Earth . Lawrence W. Braile, Professor. Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric. Sheryl J. Braile, Teacher. Happy Hollow School. ( January 25, 2002 ; updated. April 9, 2004; October 15, 2011) “But in the cause of science men are expected to suffer.” (p. 28, A Journey to the Center of the Earth , Jules Verne, 1864) Objectives : This virtual journey to the center of the Earth introduces the traveler to jay sean biography, the structure, material properties and conditions within the Earth’s interior. The size and scale of the Earth and descriptive on a, of the Earth’s internal structure are also emphasized because the journey utilizes a scale model of the depths within the Earth. Opportunities for creative writing and connections to literature are also provided through Jules Verne’s 1864 science fiction novel, A Journey to jay sean, the Center of the Earth , and the 20 th Century Fox 1959 movie adaptation (titled Journey to the Center of the Earth ) starring James Mason, Pat Boone, Arlene Dahl, and Diane Baker.

Background: In the 1800’s there was considerable scientific and popular interest in what was in the interior of the Earth. The details of the internal structure (crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core; and their composition and thicknesses; Figure 1) had not yet been discovered. And, although volcanic eruptions demonstrated that at least part of the oliver v us, interior of the Earth was hot enough to melt rocks, temperatures within the biography, Earth and the existence of radioactivity were unknown. Jules Verne’s book, A Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864, 272 pages; originally published in France as Voyage au Centre de la Terre ), capitalized on descriptive writing this interest in jay sean, the Earth and in feliks techniques, adventure with an biography exciting science fiction story that is still popular today. Verne introduces us to a dedicated, and somewhat eccentric professor, and his nephew through whom the story is vc andrew books, told (see selected quotations below), who eventually travel into the Earth’s deep interior by entering into an opening in the crater of a volcano in jay sean, Iceland . Figure 1. Earth’s interior structure.

The Earth’s crust is made up primarily of silicic (high percentage of Silicon and oliver v us, Oxygen) crystalline (distinct crystals of individual minerals are visible) rocks. The mantle makes up about 82% of the Earth by volume and consists of Iron- and magnesium-rich silicate rocks. The core is mostly iron, with a small percentage of nickel. The outer core is molten and the inner core is biography, solid. “…and my uncle a professor of philosophy, chemistry, geology, mineralogy, and many other ologies.” (p.1, Jules Verne, 1864) “I loved mineralogy, I loved geology. To me there was nothing like pebbles—and if my uncle had been in a little less of a fury, we should have been the happiest of families.” (p.3, Jules Verne, 1864) “His imagination is a perfect volcano, and to make discoveries in the interest of geology he would sacrifice his life.” (p. 14, Jules Verne, 1864) Verne’s novel is science fiction. We know today that such a journey would be impossible. The temperature and pressure conditions within the Earth are so extreme that humans could not survive below a few kilometers depth within the 6371 km radius Earth. Descriptive Writing On A Beach? Furthermore, we know of no significant openings that would provide access to jay sean, the deep interior of the planet, and caves or cavities at sorites paradox, great depth are nearly impossible based on our knowledge of temperature and pressure within the Earth and the properties of Earth materials.

However, Verne’s story is an interesting one and it is the inspiration (along with the desire to provide materials for jay sean learning about the Earth’s interior) for this Earth science educational activity. By the late 1800’s, observations of temperature in mines and drill holes had demonstrated that temperature within the writing beach, Earth increased with depth, and thus it is possible that the Earth’s interior is very hot. Seismographic recordings in the early 1900’s were used to identify the Earth’s thin (about 5 – 75 km thick) crust (in 1909) and jay sean biography, the existence of the core (in 1906). In 1936, Danish seismologist Inge Lehman presented evidence for the existence of a solid inner core. Since then, seismology and other geological and geophysical studies have provided considerably more detailed information about the structure, composition and conditions of the interior of the Earth. These features will be highlighted during our virtual “Journey to the Center of the Earth”.

As it is on a, commonly done, we have represented (Figure 1 and Table 1) the Earth as a layered sphere of 6371 km radius. Biography? The Earth is actually not quite spherical. Because of the descriptive, rotation on its axis, the Earth is approximately an ellipsoid with the equatorial radius being about 21 km larger than the polar radius. Jay Sean Biography? Also, in detail, the oliver v us, Earth is not exactly spherically symmetric. Jay Sean? Lateral as well as vertical variations in asimov robot, composition and rock properties have been recognized from seismological and other geophysical observations. Finally, because of plate tectonics, there are significant differences in shallow Earth structure in jay sean biography, continental versus oceanic areas, near plate boundaries, and at different locations on sorites paradox the surface. For these reasons, the jay sean, depths to the boundaries that we will encounter in sorites paradox, our journey would be slightly different if we chose a different location for the start of biography our journey. The depths, properties and other descriptions listed in the scale model for our journey are reasonable average values for a continental region. Once one realizes that the skrzynecki, interior of the Earth is hot, it is natural to ask, why is it hot?

Because the Earth is 4.5 billion years old, it would seem logical that the planet would have cooled by now. The heat within the Earth results primarily from two sources – original heat from the Earth’s formation and radiogenic heat (Poirier, 2000). The largest of biography these sources, radiogenic heat, is mostly produced by three, naturally occurring, radioactive elements, Uranium, Thorium and Potassium. These elements are present in the mantle at concentrations of about 0.015 ppm (parts per million; meaning that only about 15 of every billion atoms in the mantle are Uranium) for asimov robot Uranium, 0.080 ppm for Thorium and 0.1% for Potassium (Brown and Mussett, 1981). Jay Sean Biography? Spontaneous radioactive decay of sorites paradox these elements releases heat. Biography? Although the major radioactive elements are more concentrated (10 to 100 times as abundant) in the Earth’s crust, most of the radiogenic heat production comes from the mantle because of the much greater volume. The original heat from vc andrew books formation of the Earth dates from the accretion of the Earth from planetesimals that bombarded the early planet converting gravitational energy into jay sean heat. Modern scientific information about the interior of the Earth comes from a variety of studies including: seismology in which seismic waves from earthquakes and other sources are used to generate images of the interior structure and determine the physical properties of Earth materials; analysis of the Earth’s gravity field indicates density variations; high-pressure mineral experiments that are used to infer the composition of deep layers; thermal modeling of temperature measurements in drill holes; modeling of the Earth’s magnetic field that is writing on a, produced by convection currents in the electrically-conductive outer core; and chemical analysis of jay sean rock samples (called xenoliths) from deep within the Earth that are brought to the surface in volcanic eruptions.

More information about the deep Earth and the methods of study of the Earth’s interior can be found in descriptive writing beach, the references listed below. A good starting point is the book by Bolt (1993), the biography, American Scientist article by Wysession (1995) or a chapter on the Earth’s interior by Wysession from an introductory geology textbook (see reference list). More advanced readers may wish to asimov robot, refer to Brown and Mussett (1981), Jeanloz (1993), Ahrens (1995), Wysession (1996), Poirier (2000) and Gurnis (2001). For younger readers, examine the children’s book by Harris (1999). Jay Sean? Much of the information about deep Earth properties and conditions given in Table 1 comes from Ahrens (1995). Information about microbes in the Earth’s crust (mentioned in the Narrative, Stop number 3) is from oliver v us Fredrickson and Onstott (1996). Procedure and biography, Teaching Strategies: A scale model (either a “classroom” scale or a “playground or hallway” scale; Figures 1 and sorites paradox, 2 and Table 1) is used to provide the depths and locations of stops for a virtual journey to the center of the biography, Earth.

Using a meter stick or meter wheel, mark out the locations of the 12 stops in the classroom (1:1,000,000 scale model; 6.37 m long) or playground or hallway (1:100,000 scale model; 63.7 m long). Masking tape placed on the floor or pavement is a convenient method for marking the stops. A felt pen can be used to label the stop number on the strip of masking tape. Feliks Techniques? Folded index cards, labeled with the stop number, can also be used and have the advantage that the numbers can be seen from a distance (looking forward or backward to stops along the journey. Depths and the names of the locations can also be labeled using the masking tape, if desired. Provide each student in biography, the class with a copy of the skrzynecki techniques, “Tour Guide” that can be produced as described near the end of this document. Folding the page in “thirds” creates a small brochure that each student can use on the tour and take home to help them remember the information that they learned and their experiences on the Journey to the Center of the Earth. 1. With the class, start at stop number 1 (the Earth’s surface) and read the first part of the “Journey to the Center of the Earth Narrative” (below). Proceed to the other stops and jay sean biography, read the appropriate section of the narrative at each stop. Be sure to sorites paradox, point out the distance that you’ve traveled in each move (by looking forward and jay sean, backward along the model and using the scaled and actual distances from Table 1) and the distance that is skrzynecki, remaining to jay sean biography, travel to the Earth’s center. Answer student (traveler) questions at each stop.

The information in Table 1 may be useful for answering questions. Economists To Measure? Other questions may form the basis of class or individual student research (“let’s find out”) using the references listed below or library or Internet searches. 2. Jay Sean? When back in the classroom, use transparencies (or copies) of Table 1 and Figures 1, 2 and 3 to asimov robot, review with the students the jay sean, main features of the Earth’s interior and the properties and conditions at various depths within the Earth. Note the increases in density, temperature and feliks, pressure with depth within the Earth and the abrupt changes in density at the major boundaries between layers. Additional questions can be answered or used to prompt additional study (such as other activities related to the Earth’s interior structure or plate tectonics) or research or to biography, provide an assessment of skrzynecki student learning from the activity.

3. As an extension, or to biography, connect to descriptive writing beach, reading, writing and literature study, have the class read Jules Verne’s A Journey to the Center to biography, the Earth (or selected chapters) or watch the movie (it is about 2 hours long, although one could skip the first approximately 30 minutes; starting as the explorers begin to climb the volcano). Relevant writing assignments for the students could be to write their own brief version of A Journey to sorites paradox, the Center of the Earth based on the more accurate information about the nature of the Earth’s interior; write a review of the book or movie, or write about the inaccuracies and misconceptions that are evident in the book and movie. The accuracies and misconceptions also can provide material for an effective class discussion and assessment of student learning after reading Verne’s book or viewing the movie. 4. Biography? For younger students, reading Journey to the Center of the Earth (Harris, 1999) or The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth (Cole, 1987) before or after completing the journey is skrzynecki techniques, a useful extension and connection to literature. 5. Related Earth structure activities include Earth’s Interior Structure (Braile, 2000) and jay sean biography, Three-D Earth Structure Model (Braile and Braile, 2000). A useful and attractive color poster (Earth Anatomy poster) illustrating Earth’s interior structure is available from the Wright Center for Science Education, Tufts University . A page size version of the poster can be downloaded from http://www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/svl/posters/erth.html. 6. Additional extensions are also possible. An interesting assignment is to have each student or pair of students select one stop (depth) along the journey. Have the student or student team learn about the materials and conditions at that depth (some additional reading from the references provided below or from use gdp to measure online sources would be necessary) and jay sean, then draw an illustration that can be used to help describe each stop on feliks skrzynecki the journey. Jay Sean? Rock samples, if available (even photographs of rock or mineral samples from a book or from the Internet*), could also be placed at each stop to help illustrate the materials that make up the Earth’s interior. A piece of iron or steel can be used for the Earth’s core remembering that it will be liquid iron in the outer core.

The student experts from one class, stationed at each stop, could also be the tour guides that would provide information, show their illustration and rock sample, and read the appropriate section of the journey narrative for another class or group of students. The experience of students learning in-depth information about one area of the tour and serving as “experts” can be an excellent “students teaching students” approach to asimov robot, learning. To emphasize the long journey or tour experience in biography, the “Journey to the Center of the Earth” activity, a glass of water, a piece of asimov robot candy or other refreshments could be served at one of the stops, probably the jay sean, core/mantle boundary (stop 10) which is a little less than half way along the journey in terms of depth. 7. Connections of this activity to the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) are listed in Table 3 below. * Photographs of appropriate rocks and minerals can be found at several online sources, including: http://www.soes.soton.ac.uk/resources/collection/minerals/ (these photos can be enlarged by clicking on the photo until the sorites paradox, photograph is almost full screen size); examples of biography sedimentary rocks are appropriate for the surface stop, number 1, click on “Sedimentary Rocks” at top of web page; for feliks techniques example, see sample #8, a sandstone; Granite samples from the “Igneous Rocks” link can be used for stops 2, 3, 4, and 5, alternatively, Gneiss samples could be used to represent crustal rocks, particularly for stops 4 and 5 that are deeper in the upper continental crust; Gabbro or Basalt samples, also from the “Igneous Rocks” link can be used to represent lower crustal rocks; a photograph of Olivine, an jay sean biography iron-magnesium silicate that is feliks techniques, a common mineral in the Earth’s mantle – stops 6 – 10 – can be found in the “Minerals” section of the above web site or at: http://www.musee.ensmp.fr/gm/836.html; for the Earth’s core, a photo of an iron-nickel meteorite (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/outreach1/expmetmys/slideset/IronMet.JPG) is a good representation of the jay sean biography, material that forms the core. A selection of photos that are useful for representing typical rocks from the Earth’s interior is provided in Table 2 below. Table 1. Sorites Paradox? Journey to the Center of the Earth.

Scaled Depth (m) 1:1 million. Scaled Depth (m) 1:100,000. Name or Location. Sed. Rocks Granitic Rk. Deepest Drill Hole. Mafic Rock Olivine-rich Rk. Base of Lithosphere. Upper Mantle Transition. Fe-Mg Silicate Liquid Iron. Inner Core/Outer Core Bound.

Liquid Iron Solid Iron. Center of Earth. Table 1. (cont.) Journey to the Center of the Earth. The Earth's surface is a marked boundary, between the solid or liquid Earth below and the Atmosphere above, with distinct changes in properties. Surface materials on land are usually soil, sediments, sedimentary rocks or weathered crystalline rocks. Beneath surface sedimentary rocks, lies a crystalline basement made up of igneous or metamorphic rocks, usually of granitic composition. A typical depth to the basement is 1 km although deep (5 km) sedimentary basins are common. The deepest depth that humans have explored on jay sean land is in a gold mine in South Africa -- almost 3.6 km deep.

In the oceans, a special submarine carried explorers to the bottom of the Mariana trench at over 11 km below the Pacific Ocean 's surface. Upper layer of continental crust consists of granitic (high % of sorites paradox Silicon and Oxygen) rocks. Except in subduction zones, where two plates collide, most earthquakes occur in the upper crust. Lower crust is more mafic (higher % of Mg and Fe). The deepest drill holes in the Earth are about 12 km deep. Rock samples have been recovered from these depths.

The holes have been drilled for scientific study of the crust and to explore for petroleum in deep sedimentary basins. The crust-mantle boundary, or Moho, separates mafic rocks of the lower crust from Olivine-rich rocks that make up the Earth's mantle. The depth to the Moho varies from about 10 km in oceanic regions to over 70 km beneath high mountain areas. The depth of this boundary is controlled by jay sean biography, temperature. Economists Use Gdp? It is a gradual rather than an abupt boundary. The lithosphere (tectonic plates) above is relatively cool, rigid and brittle. Lower lithosphere is mantle. Beneath is the soft asthenosphere. Partial melting of mantle rocks in this layer produces magma for volcanic eruptions and intrusions.

Although a solid, asthenosphere is hot enough to flow in jay sean, convection currents. Lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary is shallower in hot regions. As pressure increases with depth in mantle, Fe and Mg silicate minerals compress into more dense crystalline forms in the transition zone and below. Mantle is relatively homogeneous chemically and forms. 82% of Earth by volume. Deep earthquakes in subduction zones are found to sorites paradox, a depth of jay sean about 670 km. Boundary separates liquid iron core from the silicate rock mantle. A transition zone ( 200 km thick) exists just above the core-mantle boundary that may represent areas of partially melted mantle (the bottom of mantle plumes) from asimov robot heat flowing from the jay sean, outer core, or old lithospheric slabs that have descended to the bottom of the asimov robot, mantle. The core is. 16.5% of the Earth by volume but about biography, 33% of the Earth by mass. No seismic shear waves travel in outer core.

Convection currents in economists, the electrically conductive outer core produce Earth's magnetic field. This boundary separates the solid inner core from the liquid iron (and. 10% nickel, sulfur, silicon and oxygen) outer core. Although the radius of the inner core is about 1216 km, the inner core includes only jay sean biography, about 0.7% of the volume of the Earth. Earth's center is within the dense, iron inner core.

Although the asimov robot, temperature is biography, very high, the oliver v us, pressure is so great ( 3.6 million times the pressure at the surface), that the jay sean, inner core is solid. Table 1. (cont.) Journey to the Center of the Earth Description of Column. 1. Stop Number -- The stop number for our virtual Journey to the Center of the Earth, in which we will travel from the Earth's surface to the Earth's center (using a scale model). 2. Depth -- The depth (in the Earth) in kilometers corresponding to asimov robot, each stop in our journey. Many of the depths are approximate and will vary by location. 3. Scaled Depth -- The depth (in meters) for each stop in the 1:1 million scale model. Total. depth (surface to center) in the scale model is 6.37 m. Classroom scale model. 4. Scaled Depth -- The depth (in meters) for each stop in the 1:100,000 scale model. Total. depth (surface to center) in the scale model is 63.7 m. Biography? Playground or hallway scale model.

5. Name or Location -- Description or name of the location of economists use gdp each stop. 5. Rock/Material -- Rock type, description or composition of the biography, material at each stop. Two. entries separated by a line give the rock type or material both above and below a boundary at the corresponding depth. 6. Density -- The approximate density (in grams per sorites paradox, cubic centimeter; for comparison, the. density of water is 1 g/cm 3 ) of the material at each stop. Two entries separated by a line give the density of the jay sean biography, rock or material above and vc andrew books, below the boundary. 7. Pressure -- The approximate pressure (in Mega-Pascals) at biography, each stop (depth in the Earth).

One atmosphere of sorites paradox pressure (the pressure at the Earth's surface due to the weight of the atmosphere above us) is about 0.1 MPa (1 Kg/cm 2 or. 14 lbs/in 2 ). The pressure in the tires of a car (and at about 10 meters depth under water) is jay sean, about 2 atmospheres or about 0.2 MPa. 8. Temperature -- The approximate temperature in degrees Celsius at each stop (depth in the. 9. Description/Comments -- Description and sorites paradox, comments about the material and biography, conditions at. each stop in the journey.

Figure 2. Earth’s interior (to scale) showing the depths to the major boundaries between the Earth’s layers (spherical shells). The numbered dots indicate the locations of the stops (Table 1) in sorites paradox, our virtual journey. A close-up view (Figure 3) of the upper 150 km of the biography, Earth’s interior shows the sorites paradox, locations of the first eight stops. Figure 3. Shallow Earth structure showing the depths to boundaries in the upper 150 km of the Earth. Biography? The numbered dots indicate the locations of the first 8 stops (Table 1) in our virtual journey. Narrative for “Journey to the Center of the Earth”: Attention!

Attention! We are ready to start our journey to the center of the Earth. Descriptive Writing On A? My name is jay sean biography, Mrs. Braile 1 and I will be your tour guide today. We are going to learn many fascinating things about the interior of the economists use gdp to measure, Earth. Please feel free to biography, ask questions along the descriptive on a beach, way and I will try to biography, answer them.

Our journey is long, so I hope that you’ve had a big breakfast. Also, there are no rest rooms along the way. So, prepare yourself for an exciting journey! We will begin at the Earth’s surface – our familiar home. Except for natural caves, tunnels, mine shafts, and drill holes that extend from the surface to depths of a few kilometers, we know of no large openings that could provide access to the Earth’s deep interior. Furthermore, the very high temperature and pressure and asimov robot, the lack of jay sean air in the deep Earth create conditions that we could not survive. In addition, it is a long journey – it is 6371 kilometers to vc andrew books, the Earth’s center. If we were able to walk directly to the Earth’s center, it would take about 53 days (at 5 km/hr, 24 hours per jay sean biography, day) of walking. And then, we’d have to sorites paradox, walk back! Even if there were a very fast elevator that would take us to the Earth’s center, the time that our journey would take would only be reduced to about 4 Ѕ days. If there was a highway to the Earth’s center, it would take about 64 hours to drive there at 100 km/hr.

Because of these facts, we will be taking a virtual journey to the center of the jay sean, Earth using a scale model. The scale that we will be using is 1:100,000 (one to one hundred thousand) in which one centimeter in our model represents one kilometer of depth in the real Earth. Skrzynecki? Using this scale, our model of the biography, distance from the Earth’s surface to asimov robot, its center is 63.7 meters long. 2 Another way to understand the concept of scale is to realize that we would have to multiply the jay sean biography, depths in economists use gdp to measure, our scale model by 100,000 in order to produce the actual depths in the Earth! We will begin at the surface and make 12 stops along our journey to the center of the Earth. At each stop, we’ll observe the relative distance that we’ve traveled in our scale model, and learn about the materials and conditions that exist at these locations within the jay sean, Earth. Stop Number 1 – Earth’s Surface: We’re already at our first stop – the sorites paradox, Earth’s surface. Biography? If we began our journey at oliver v us, a different location we would probably find different geological materials at the surface. For example, if we started in a desert region, we might find sand deposits or sandstones at the surface, or if we started in Hawaii , we would most likely begin on volcanic rock. If we began our journey in the middle of the ocean, we would find a layer of ocean water at jay sean, the surface.

Here in Indiana, the near-surface deposits are mostly glacial sediments deposited during the period of on a beach 15,000 to about a million years ago. 1 Beneath the jay sean, glacial sediments are layers of Paleozoic sandstones, shales and limestones that were deposited in a shallow ocean over 300 million years ago. Of course, above us is the Earth’s atmosphere, consisting of about 21% oxygen, which we breathe in order to live. Deep in the Earth, we would not have sufficient air to breath. However, that won’t be a problem in our virtual journey. Let’s go to to measure, our next stop – it isn’t far. Stop Number 2 – Top of the Crystalline Basement: Here we are about 1 km beneath the biography, surface. In continental regions, this is a typical depth to the bottom of the near-surface sediments and sedimentary rocks. The crystalline basement is immediately beneath us. In areas where there are deep sedimentary basins, or in ocean basins, the depth to the basement is significantly greater – up to 10 km or more. Writing? In continental areas, the crystalline basement usually consists of jay sean biography igneous and metamorphic rocks of oliver v us granitic composition.

These rocks have interlocking crystals made of minerals that are easily visible and have a composition that includes about 70% Silicon and jay sean, Oxygen. You may be familiar with the economists use gdp to measure, common igneous rock of this type, called granite. The crystalline basement is the top of jay sean a layer that makes up most of the Earth’s crust. Our next stop is even deeper in the crust. Stop Number 3 – Depth of Deepest Mine: This stop is at a depth of 3.6 km (3600 meters) below the surface and is the depth of the deepest mine in the world. It is a gold mine in South Africa , and it’s the oliver v us, greatest depth that humans have gone beneath the continents. However, it is not the greatest depth where life exists. Subsurface bacteria (microbes) have been found in drill holes about 3 km beneath the surface and have been shown to be able to survive temperatures as high as 110 degrees Celsius. At this temperature, it is likely that microbes exist in the Earth’s crust as deep as about 7 km beneath oceans and about 4-5 km beneath continents.

As you might notice, it’s starting to get very warm – about 50 degrees Celsius. You can touch the rocks but don’t leave your hand on the rocks for biography very long or you will burn your hand! Stop Number 4 – Upper Crust: We’re now deep within the crust at a depth of 10 km. Because these granitic rocks are still relatively cool (although they are about 180 degrees Celsius – about as hot as a bread oven), they are brittle. Descriptive On A Beach? Except in subduction zones, where two tectonic plates collide, most of the world’s earthquakes occur within the upper crust within a few kilometers of our present depth. If we had begun our journey above a deep sedimentary basin, we might find petroleum deposits (oil or natural gas within the pore spaces of sandstones or other porous rocks) at this depth. If we had begun our journey at the surface of the ocean, we would be near the base of the oceanic crust at this depth. Biography? The oceanic crust consists of marine sediments overlying rocks of writing on a approximately basaltic composition. If there are no questions, we’ll go to the next depth. Stop Number 5 – Deepest Drill Hole: Here we are at about 12 km beneath the surface.

This is the jay sean biography, depth of the world’s deepest drill hole (in the Kola peninsula of Russia ). The pressures and temperatures are so great that it is difficult to build drill bits and drilling equipment that will penetrate these rocks. The rocks are also so compacted that there is almost no space between the crystals or grains that make up the rocks. We definitely couldn’t survive here. Although our next stop is the base of the continental crust, it’s only about one half of one percent of the way along our journey! We shouldn’t delay. Stop Number 6 – Base of the Crust: We’ve reached the base of the crust.

It is also called the crust/mantle boundary, or “Moho”, after Andrija Mohorovicic the Croatian seismologist who discovered this prominent boundary in on a, 1909. If you’ll look back toward the Earth’s surface, you’ll notice that we really haven’t gone very far on our journey to the center of the Earth. The depth to the Moho averages about jay sean biography, 35 km beneath continents but is about 10 – 15 km depth beneath oceans. The Moho is an use gdp to measure abrupt boundary in composition and properties. Just above the Moho, the lowest layer of the crust consists of more mafic (higher in Magnesium and Iron) rocks than the granitic rocks that we’ve been traveling through in the upper crust. Below is the mantle – a thick layer that forms about 82% of the Earth’s volume; so we’ll be traveling through the mantle for jay sean a long time. Like the crust, the mantle is descriptive on a beach, also made up of silicate (high percentage of Silicon and Oxygen) rocks.

However, these rocks have a significantly higher percentage of Iron and Magnesium. Jay Sean? A common material in the mantle is Olivine – an olive green mineral that is commonly found as large crystals in basaltic volcanic rocks such as in Hawaii . Let’s go to the next stop. Stop Number 7 – Base of the Lithosphere: Here we are at the base of the lithosphere. Notice that the lithosphere consists of the crust and the uppermost part of the asimov robot, mantle. This boundary is gradual with depth, not an abrupt “discontinuity”. The depth ( 50 – 300 km) to the base of the lithosphere is controlled by temperature. Where temperatures in the upper mantle are higher than average, such as beneath mid ocean ridges and in active tectonic zones in continental areas, the jay sean, lithosphere is thinner. Vc Andrew Books? Old, relatively cool lithosphere is much thicker. The lithosphere forms the tectonic plates that separate, collide, and slide past each other to create the biography, Earth’s landscape and beach, produce mountain ranges, faults, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Jay Sean Biography? Below the lithosphere, temperatures are hot enough to partially melt the mantle rocks, forming the asthenosphere – the primary source of magma that erupts from volcanoes on the surface.

The asthenosphere is asimov robot, our next stop. Stop Number 8 – Asthenosphere: Except beneath areas that are very old (over about one billion years) and have relatively cool upper mantle, at our current depth of 150 km, we would find ourselves within a very hot (about 1300 degrees Celsius) mantle that is biography, partially (probably less than 1-2 percent) molten and flowing. Descriptive Writing On A Beach? Convection currents in the asthenosphere (and perhaps deeper in the mantle) are a likely cause of plate motions. Because the plates are moving very slowly – a few cm per year (about the speed that your fingernails grow) – you don’t have to be worried about being swept away by these currents. Because seismic shear waves travel through the asthenosphere, we classify this part of the mantle (as well as the rest of the mantle) as a solid even though it flows. Biography? You are probably familiar with a material that behaves this way at normal temperatures – Silly Putty . Silly putty behaves as a solid, and even bounces (like any elastic material) when rolled into a ball and dropped onto the floor. However, it can be stretched, and slowly flows over longer periods of time. It even flows slowly into the form of the plastic egg-shaped container that it is sold in. This behavior, over longer periods of time, is more like a liquid.

Take a close look at the rocks here. You might find diamonds! Diamonds form in the upper mantle from Carbon atoms at high pressure at depths greater than about 150 km. The diamonds can be deposited closer to the surface in “Kimberlite pipes” – narrow vents that are created in brief explosive eruptions. Well, we’ve got a long distance to go to our next stop, so we’d better start walking. Stop Number 9 – Upper Mantle Transition Zone: We’re well below the asthenosphere now at about 670 km depth. Feliks Skrzynecki Techniques? The pressure is so great at this depth that some of the minerals that form mantle rocks undergo a transformation in their crystal structure that results in a tighter packing of the atoms that make up the biography, mineral. Descriptive Writing On A? Because of this tighter packing, mantle rocks in biography, the upper mantle transition zone (about 400 – 700 km) become denser with depth even though the chemical composition of the economists use gdp to measure, rocks is virtually the same. Therefore, lower mantle rocks are similar in composition to the olivine-rich rocks of the upper mantle but are of higher density. If we had selected a location for our journey that was located above a subduction zone (a place where two plates collide), we might find ourselves within a subducted slab.

These parts of jay sean lithospheric plates descend, normally at steep angles and at typical plate tectonic velocities – about 2-10 cm/year, from the collision zone at vc andrew books, the surface into the mantle. Therefore, these slabs formerly were near the Earth’s surface. Biography? Because the slabs remain cooler than the vc andrew books, surrounding mantle for tens of millions of years, deep earthquakes occur within or at the edges of biography these slabs. The deepest earthquakes occur at about 670 km depth. I know that you can feel the intense heat and pressure that are present at this depth, so we need to move on. Our destination, the oliver v us, center of the Earth, is still very distant; in fact, we’ve only traveled just over 10 percent of our journey.

We’ll make fewer stops for the rest of the journey. Stop Number 10 – Core/Mantle Boundary: We’re now 2885 km below the jay sean, surface and at the core/mantle boundary. Sorites Paradox? Let’s turn around and look at the Earth’s surface to see how far we’ve gone and to jay sean biography, see how much of the Earth is mantle. Let’s also look further down in depth to the Earth’s center to see how far we have to go. This boundary is the use gdp to measure, most prominent boundary in biography, the Earth’s interior. It is a dramatic boundary in composition, and therefore density, with silicate rocks of the mantle above and dense iron and nickel below. In addition, the oliver v us, mantle above is solid and the outer core below is liquid.

The boundary probably varies laterally, and in detail is a transition zone above the liquid outer core that is about 200 kilometers thick. The transition zone has been interpreted to consist of the bottom of jay sean mantle plumes where heat flowing from the oliver v us, outer core causes partial melting of the mantle rocks above the biography, core mantle boundary and lithospheric plates (old subducted slabs) that have descended to the bottom of the mantle. The temperature here is about 3500 degrees Celsius, about 2 –3 times hotter than a blast furnace and hot enough to melt iron even under the great pressure that exists at this depth. Because of the dense rocks and vc andrew books, high pressure, compressional seismic waves (P-waves) travel at nearly 14 km/s in the mantle just above this boundary. Biography? Because the outer core is liquid, the economists to measure, P-wave velocity decreases to about 8 km/s and shear (S) waves cannot propagate in the outer core. Also, the hot, electrically-conductive outer core liquid flows by convection, generating the Earth’s magnetic field. It is this magnetic field that aligns the needle on our compass at the Earth’s surface. You may wonder why the temperature is so high in the Earth’s interior.

Most of the heat comes from radioactive decay of Uranium, Thorium and Potassium atoms that are found in the mantle. These elements are of fairly small concentration in the mantle, so the level of radioactivity is low. However, there are enough radioactive atoms in biography, the mantle to generate significant heat. Some of the Earth’s heat was also generated at the time of formation of the planet by bombardment of planetesimals (causing melting) during the accretion of the Earth. Because rocks are not good conductors of heat, the temperature in the interior has remained high. Well, it’s really getting hot, so I’m sure that you’re anxious to complete our journey and oliver v us, get back to the Earth’s surface. Let’s hurry to jay sean biography, our next stop. Stop Number 11 – Inner Core/Outer Core Boundary: We’re now 5155 km beneath the surface at the inner core/outer core boundary. The material both above and vc andrew books, below us is iron, along with a small percentage of nickel and probably oxygen or sulfur. Above us the iron-nickel outer core is molten.

Below us the pressure is so high that, even though it is very hot, the jay sean, iron-nickel inner core is solid. Although the radius of the inner core is asimov robot, 1216 km (look toward the center of the Earth in our model; that’s how far we have to jay sean, go), the inner core is only 0.7 percent of the Earth by volume. Let’s hurry; only sorites paradox, one more stop! Stop Number 12 – Center of the Earth: Well, we made it. Congratulations, we’re at the center of the Earth! It’s 6371 km back to the surface. Take a look at how far we traveled from the surface. Jay Sean? The temperature is sorites paradox, about 5500 degrees Celsius.

The pressure is over 3.6 million times the biography, pressure at the Earth’s surface. Sorites Paradox? However, I must warn you to hold on biography ! Because there is approximately the writing beach, same amount of Earth all around us (we’re in the center of a nearly spherical planet), Earth’s gravity here is ZERO. If there was an opening here, we would feel weightless! However, the pressure and temperature are very high, so we could not survive. It’s a good thing this is a virtual journey! It’s now time to go back to the surface. It’s been a long journey, so let’s go directly back. Back at Stop Number 1 – Earth’s Surface: Thank you for jay sean biography being such a good tour group! I hope that you’ve enjoyed our Journey to the Center of the Earth and to measure, that you’ve learned some interesting things about the Earth’s interior.

If you have any additional questions about our journey or about the interior of the biography, Earth, I’d be glad to try to answer them for skrzynecki you. 1 There are several places in biography, the narrative that can be personalized for your use. 2 The narrative is written assuming the playground or hallway (1:100,000, or 63.7 m long) scale model (Table 1). If the classroom (1:1,000,000, or 6.37 m long) scale model (Table 1) is used, change the appropriate numbers in the narrative. Ahrens, T.J. Vc Andrew Books? (editor), Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of biography Physical Constants , American Geophysical Union , Washington , DC, 379 pp., 1995. Bolt, B.A., Earthquakes and Geological Discovery , W.H. Descriptive Writing Beach? Freeman and Co., New York , 230. Braile, L.W., Earth’s Interior Structure, 2000,

Braile, L.W., and S.J. Braile, Three-D Earth Structure Model, 2000, Brown, G.C., and jay sean, A.E. Vc Andrew Books? Mussett, The Inaccessible Earth , Allen and Unwin, London , 235. Cole, Joanna, The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth , Scholastic Inc., New York, 40 pp., Davidson, Keay, and A. R. Williams, Under our skin: Hot Theories on biography the origin of the. Earth, National Geographic , 189 , 100-111, January, 1996. Fredrickson, J.K., and T.C. Onstott, Microbes deep inside the oliver v us, Earth, Scientific American , 275 , 68-73, October, 1996.

Gurnis, Michael, Sculpting the Earth from Inside Out, Scientific American , 284 , 40-47, Harris, Nicholas (American text by jay sean, Marc Gave; illustrations by Gary Hincks), Journey to. the Center of the Earth , Reader’s Digest Children’s Publishing, Inc., Pleasantville, NY, 31 pp., 1999. Jeanloz, Raymond, and sorites paradox, Thorne Lay, The Core-Mantle Boundary, Scientific American , 268 , Journey to the Center of the Earth , video, Twentieth Century Fox, 1959, $9.98, available. at www.amazon.com. [As would be expected, the movie version of A Journey to biography, the Center of the economists to measure, Earth is somewhat different from the biography, story in the book.

There are additional characters and asimov robot, the story line has been changed, although the main feature of the story – the journey to biography, the center of the Earth – remains, and the personalities of the main characters are, in general, retained.] National Research Council, National Science Education Standards , National Academy of sorites paradox Sciences , Washington , D.C., 262 pp., 1996. Poirier, J.P., An Introduction to the Physics of the Earth’s Interior, 2 nd ed., Cambridge. University Press, Cambridge , UK , 312 pp., 2000. Verne, Jules, Voyage au Centre de la Terre , 1864; English translation, A Journey to the. Center of the Earth , originally published in English by Griffith and Farran, 1871; “Professor Hardwigg” version available in jay sean, a Mass Market Paperback, 1995, $5.95, also available at www.amazon.com, the text is also available online at: http://www.vt.edu/vt98/academics/books/verne/center_earth; “Professor Lidenbrock” version available in a Penguin USA paperback, 1995, $4.95, also available at www.amazon.com; the text is also available online at: http://jv.gilead.org.il/vt/c_earth/. [At least two, somewhat different, translations of feliks techniques Verne’s book are available. One, refers to a main character, the professor, as “Professor Hardwigg”, the biography, other refers to this character as “Professor Lidenbrock”. We prefer the content and writing style of the vc andrew books, “Hardwigg” version.] Wysession , M.E. , The inner workings of the Earth, American Scientist, 83 , 134-147,

Wysession , M.E. , Journey to jay sean, the Center of the asimov robot, Earth, Earth , 5 , 46-49, December, 1996. Wysession, M.E., Earth’s Interior, Chapter 12 of biography Earth: An introduction to physical geology, 8th. Acknowledgments: We thank Michael Wysession, Barry Marsh and John and Kathy Taber for providing information or assistance. The development of this activity was partially supported by the National Science Foundation. Tour Guide: Provide each student in the class with a copy of the “Tour Guide” that can be produced by printing the next two pages of writing this document. Trim each image and enlarge each one to fit on one page. Or, print the Tour Guide from the .doc (recommended; margins are better) or .pdf files: guide.doc or guide.pdf. Copy (in color or black and white) on biography the front and back of a sheet of paper. Make copies for the class. Vc Andrew Books? Folding the page in “thirds” creates a small brochure that each student can use on the tour and take home to help them remember the information that they learned and their experiences on the Journey to the Center of the Earth.

To generate additional interest in the Journey to the Center of the Earth tour, one can make a construction paper “hardhat” (Figures 4 and jay sean, 5) for sorites paradox the tour leader or for each participant in the tour (the idea of wearing a hat for the tour was provided by John and Kathy Taber). Labels: A set of labels for the stops along the Journey tour is available in the MS Word document: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/ braile/edumod/journey/labels.doc. The labels include a single page to mark the first five stops. Labels that can be placed at the appropriate scaled distance for biography Stop 1 and Stops 6-12 are also included. The label for the first five stops is designed for oliver v us the 1:100,000 scale (63.7 m scale model). The labels should be printed on card stock paper. Biography? Labels for Stops 1 and 6-12 can be folded to make a convenient and visible sign. This document at: MS Word format: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/

HTML format: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/ PDF format: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/ Figure 4. Template for making a “hardhat” (Figure 5) out of construction paper for the Journey to the Center of the sorites paradox, Earth tour. Figure 5. Jay Sean? Photograph of asimov robot completed construction paper “hardhat.” The templates for the sides and top are given in Figure 4. The two sides are joined to the top with small pieces of transparent tape in jay sean, the inside of the hat. Skrzynecki Techniques? The Journey to the Center of the Earth logo (below) is taped to the front of the hat with two-sided tape. Table 2. Photographs of biography rock samples that can be used to represent possible rock types for selected stops in the Earth’s interior*. 6. Iron-Nickel Meteorite. * Photos 1 – 5 courtesy of Barry Marsh, School of Ocean and asimov robot, Earth Science, Southampton Oceanography Center , University of Southampton , UK ; used with permission. For more information and additional rock and biography, mineral sample photographs, see http://www.soes.soton.ac.uk/resources/collection/minerals/. Photo 6 is from asimov robot NASA, http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/outreach1/expmetmys/slideset/Slides35-42.htm. Table 3. Journey to the Center of the Earth and the National Science Education Standards (NSES; National Research Council, 1996).

How standard is addressed in Journey to biography, the Center of the Earth activities (see Procedure and Teaching Strategies section for more details)* Activities include inquiry and opportunities for student involvement (A, B) and asimov robot, provide opportunities for ongoing assessment of student learning (C). The activity provides opportunities and appropriate resource material for teachers to learn about an Earth science topic that is not likely to have been included in their previous educational experiences and that build on their previous knowledge (A, C) and includes suggestions for effective teaching strategies (B). Authentic assessment activities are suggested (C). - Unifying Concepts and.

Processes in Science. Activity provides experience with observation, evidence and explanation, and constancy, change and measurement. - Science as Inquiry. Includes discussion of observations and jay sean biography, evidence that result in feliks techniques, conclusions about properties and conditions in the Earth’s interior. - Physical Science Standards. Activity explores properties and changes of properties in matter (Grades 5-8, B). Activity explores structure and biography, properties of matter (Grades 9-12, B). - Earth and Space Science. Activity explores structure of the Earth system (Grades 5-8, D). Activity relates to energy in the Earth system, origin and techniques, evolution of the Earth system (Grades 9-12, D).

- History and Nature of Science. Activity includes discussion of history of biography science, science as a human endeavor (and a connection to literature) (Grades 5-8, G). Activity includes discussion of science as a human endeavor and historical perspectives (and a connection to literature) (Grades 9-12, G). Copyright 2002-2014. L. Braile and S. Braile.

Permission granted for reproduction for non-commercial uses.