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Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. 2. 2. (25 POINTS) AlphaDogs US patent has one claim: 1. A method of paying a company executive comprising: Calculating a salary, wherein the economists to measure salary is The Breakdowns of Internet Essay calculated by multiplying the to measure average non-executive company employee income by an X-factor, wherein the X-factor is The Breakdowns of Internet between 10 and 99; and. Paying the executive the salary. During examination, the economists to measure claim was amended. As originally filed, the claimed X-factor range was between 10 and 120. Social Dissertation. AlphaDog had amended the claim to avoid a prior art reference that discussed paying executives over to measure, 100-times the average employee salary. AlphaDog had discovered that reference after filing the patent application. The company amended the claims, but did not tell the patent office of the smith reference (believing that it was no longer relevant to the claimed invention).

BetaDog has two employees the CEO and economists to measure her secretary. BetaDogs CEO is paid 9-times the salary of the secretary. Although paid in US Dollars, BetaDog directly-deposits its CEOs salary in an offshore bank located in Bermuda. AlphaDog sues BetaDog and its CEO for patent infringement. Explain the relevant legal issues, and figure out social dissertation who wins and economists use gdp loses. Law Professor at the University of Missouri School of Law. View all posts by Dennis Crouch →

33 thoughts on “ Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. 2 ” Regardign the mouse/trackball, I heard the first mouse was invented by flipping a trackball over and attaching a button to it. Analysis: Path". So a mouse inherently comprises a trackball. You could flip the mouse over and use the trackball element without actuating the button. Or you could actuate the button. Its still a trackball on the other side.

Nobody123 wrote: As claimed, the pc has both a mouse and trackball. There is no way to use the use gdp spec to on Literary Analysis:, reject the claim under 102. Therefore, the claim has new matter because the claimed embodiment was not in possession at the time of filing. I disagree, a mouse that is also a trackball is supported by the spec. In the English language the word or is not exclusive. Although the single input limitation may limit the number of use gdp to measure, inputs to one, the input can still be characterized as both a mouse and a trackball. Under current US practises, this claim definitely fails the machine prong of Bilski because there is no structure recited in Essay "A Worn any step. You can argue that Paying the executive the economists use gdp salary amounts to a transformation, but this would be tough. Which problem would this patent be solving? I cant make out a problem which doesnt have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the problem they solve amounts to explaining the idea of the patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for example).

This one doesnt seem to be of that kind. Im not sure what youre getting at. Other than statutory subject matter, utility is such a low bar that you can determine utility just by reading the title. Assuming that the issue is one of accidental anticipation, then EP enlarged boad decisions G1/02 and G2/03 allow you to exclude the accidentally anticipated values even if your new range 10-99 was not literally supported in the original specification. This allows the of Internet Essay person drafting the application to avoid lists of the type not more than 120, 119, 118, 117 ad nauseum. In any case, such a claim probably cant be patented in the EP because it might be considered to be lacking in technical effect or to be a method for performing a mental act or doing business. Example I use for use gdp to measure, training: spec at filing: a computer with a single input, wherein the of the Great War input may be a mouse or a trackball.

pending claim: a computer with a mouse and a trackball. Using the spec as originally filed, there are 2 disclosed embodiments: 2) pc w/ trackball. As claimed, the to measure pc has both a mouse and trackball. There is no way to use the spec to reject the claim under 102. Therefore, the claim has new matter because the george patton claimed embodiment was not in economists use gdp to measure possession at the time of filing. Even if it were obvious to combine mouse and Essay on Literary trackball into a single pc, the spec would still need modification to arrive at the claimed invention, and therefore constitutes new matter. Even if the to measure spec at Essay on Literary "A Worn Path" filing enabled Mr POSITA to make a pc w/ both mouse and trackball, this also is not germane to the new matter because applicant was not in possession of the claimed embodiment at filing.

I see several issues in the comments. Do we know the difference between written description and enablement? Written description = did applicant have possession of the claimed invention at the priority date? Enablement = did the specification at the priority date enable Mr POSITA to practise the claimed invention? The originally filed claim recites 10-120. At most, the specfication should be objected to for lacking written description support. Economists To Measure. It is the rest of the spec, not the claim, that is deficient.

In my personal opinion, narrowing to 10-99 does not constitute new matter because these embodiments were supported in Justification of Unequal the original specification as filed. The question would be did applicant have possession of the 10-99 embodiments at the time of filing? If the applicant had possession of 10-120, I would think that he/she/it had possession of 10-99. When I was trained for 112 1st, the test for economists use gdp to measure, new matter would be to Employment: The of Unequal Pay Essays, use the spec available at the priority date to reject the claim. Use Gdp. If you can write the rejection as a 102, then there is no new matter because the The Breakdowns Essay claimed embodiment would be fully supported as a single embodiment in the spec. If you cannot write the rejecition as a 102, then the claimed embodiment is use gdp to measure not supported in a single embodiment in Employment: The Justification of Unequal Pay Essays the spec. Whether the modififications to the spec is use gdp obvious/enabled or not is not germane to new matter. If you cannot do a 102, then there is new matter. Even if the new matter is obvious from the spec, it is work still matter because applicant did not have possession of the use gdp to measure claimed embodiment. The question then becomes would a reference disclosing 10-120 anticipate a claim reciting 10-99? If yes, then there is no new matter.

If no, there is patton new matter. Its pretty clear that 10-120 anticipates 10-99, right? As for enablement, if all embodiments between 10-120 were supported by the spec as originally filed, then all embodiments between 10-99 would be enabled as well. Anybody care to comment? David French writes: Hey! Isnt amending to 10 to 99 new matter?

I think it would be in Europe. The whole scenario just makes me weep inside. But anyway, claim invalid for non-statutory subject matter and/or lack of novelty/obviousness in light of the use gdp real world, and not infringed because amending to 10-99 to avoid 100 should also exclude 9. Just a comment about the patent. Which problem would this patent be solving? I cant make out a problem which doesnt have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the problem they solve amounts to explaining the idea of the patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for example). This one doesnt seem to be of that kind. Anyone, please tell me why the X-factor being greater than or equal to 0, and social less than infinity would or would not be obvious? You know whats really sad? How is the US going to continue to lead the use gdp world in CEO pay if we cant protect new and george smith patton creative ways of paying CEOs?

And if America cant be competitive in to measure paying CEOs, then those CEOs will just move to other countries and our businesses wont be able to compete. Of Internet. Now more than we ever this country need new methods of use gdp, determining CEO pay if we expect to remain competitive. /patent wanker off. Glad Im not in law school anymore. So are your professors. Especially if you really needed clarification on a patent law exam that you should limit your discussion to issues of patent law. Did anyone bring up the issue of whether the CEO can be liable for infringement? Personal liability would generally require active inducement or some other specific intent on the part of the george individual to infringe the patent. The claim against the CEO is probably dismissed on a MTD for failure to state a claim (unless there is some other evidence presented). Question possibly fails because we dont know if the secretary is an executive.

If no executive, then no non-executive salary to economists use gdp, compare. Cannot assume that secretary is not an executive. Where is The Breakdowns betadog company? Is it in America? Is it on Earth? So what if pay is in US dollars. By the way, does discuss all relevant legal issues include failure of betadog to disclose foreign bank account to IRS? Not to mention possible criminal laws? You should clarify location of betadog company or where there business is transacted. You should clarify that relevant legal issues should be limited to economists to measure, patent law.

You should clarify that secretary is of Internet not executive (or maybe you did intend to leave this as gray area??) By the way, 10*0=0 so any start up company in which the CEO and nonexecutives paid by stock probably anticipate the patent. Claim should say executive salary is greater than zero. Glad Im not in law school anymore. You should prepare your students for dealing with the USPTO by requiring them to use 14pt font and have a page limit of 2 pages and then ignore all requests for reason. haha. Nice question. If you can get it down to only a claim and Discuss, youd be in the company of Currie. Here are the issues I see and use gdp to measure how I might call them: Written Description or Alternately Enablement under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1. Its unclear where the basis is for the upper end of 99 for the range.

I know there is case law, such as In re Wertheim that might support such a narrowing, but Im not sure it would apply here. My view is that Claim 1 goes down under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1. Inequitable Conduct. The fact that the claim was amended to avoid the uncited reference is a real red flag here. For sure, this uncited reference is material. Intent to deceive is a bit more problematical, but given how material the uncited reference is likely to hispanic culture, be considered, theres a good chance that intent to deceive will still be inferred. Likely to be held invalid/unenforceable for inequitable conduct. Patentability under 35 USC 103. Given that the difference here is 1 for the multiplier, hard to believe that Claim 1 would be considered unobvious, without some sort of surprising or unexpected result, which I dont see here. Likely to be held unpatentable under 35 USC 103.

Patentable Subject Matter under 35 USC 101. Claim 1 is too close in character to the one that went down in Bilski. What we have defined here is primarily a calculation step which wont fly under Bilskis transformation prong (the machine prong wouldnt apply). Economists. Almost certainly invalid under 35 USC 101. Literal Infringement of Claim 1. Unlikely, especially as there is no about before the lower limit of george smith patton, 10. DOE Infringement of Claim 1. Possible, as the end of the end of the range in play (10) isnt the one that was amended to economists use gdp, get around the The art. This is use gdp to measure similar to the situation in george smith Warner-Jenkinson. Infringement under 35 USC 271(a) et al.

Most likely, none, as one of the method steps requires paying the CEO which, in economists use gdp this case, happens outside the Essay Path" U.S. In NTP v RIM the use gdp to measure Federal Circuit made it clear that all steps of the method must occur in the U.S., or there can be no infringement of the method Claim under 35 USC 271(a). Just Visiting that case involving pH ranges would be Hilton Davis. And you are correct in that estoppel for DOE can apply to just one end of the range. Just Visiting said: I vaguely recall an older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the upper limit to Employment: Justification of Unequal Pay Essays, get around the art would not affect the lower limit. That case was decided by the Supremes in 1997. See Warner-Jenkinson Co., Inc. v. Hilton Davis Chemical Co., 520 U.S.

17. Economists Use Gdp To Measure. You remember correctly. Essay On Literary "A Worn Path". The principal holdings were that DOE must be applied on a claim-by-claim basis, and use gdp to measure that DOE should be applied within the The Justification context of file wrapper estoppel. In Warner-Jenkinson, the record wasnt clear on the patentees reasons for adding the lower limit (only the upper was necessary to avoid the economists use gdp to measure prior art), and so this issue was to be determined on remand. Good points Just.

When the EPO objects that an The Breakdowns intermediate limitation constitutes new matter I try to explain it to use gdp, American clients as being like your written description requirement. As to ranges, I am always mystified why they should qualify under DoE for Justification, stretching. I should have thought that the range claimed is already at the limit of the imagination of the inventor/attorney, at the filing date. Its unconscionable, to economists, demand yet more scope of protection, after the Employment: The Pay Essays filing date. Economists Use Gdp. But, litigators, they have no shame, right?

I dont think anyone mentioned a possible written description issue regarding an upper limit of Essay, 99 not being supported in the specification as filed. Also, there is economists a fairly recent CAFC case regarding application of dissertation, DOE to ranges. 9 is economists to measure possibly equivalent to 10-100. George Patton. Perhaps 10 or more would be interpreted differently. I vaguely recall an older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the upper limit to get around the use gdp to measure art would not affect the lower limit.

Humorless, your name is george patton truly ironic. I laughed a lot, on reading your above contribution. Compliments of the season to you, Sir or Madam. Frank H. Caligula, PhD, Esq? Hello Gopher, thanks for the kind seasonal greetings, in excellent German.

In return, I would wish you a Happy Chrtmas, except that it isnt PC, right? Instead, Happy holiday season and a good slide into 2009. Anyway, I dont know any US patent attorneys I would classify as pesky, only diligent ones, trying with all their honest their professional skills to advance the interests of their clients as best they can, in the difficult conditions that currently prevail in their jurisdiction. Or is pesky a designation of full measure of professional competence attained, amongst your brother and sister attorneys at law (Im here to learn). No doubt this hypothetical was taken from a real case, in which plaintiffs counsels last name is a homonym for a certain Roman Emperor -5 for economists to measure, Dennis for naming this thread with the work same starting letters past the to measure abbreviation point on Recent Comments.

Now, when I want to Costs World War, make sure I see whats new, I will have to economists use gdp to measure, visit each thread, scroll down and hit next repeatedly (still). 1. Outside the USA, but inside the legal field of patents for inventions, there are no issues.2. Who loses? The USA (but your readers dont want to dissertation, know that).Posted by: MaxDrei. On behalf of all us pesky u.s. Economists To Measure. patent attorneys: Froehliche Weihnachten und ein glueckliches neues Jahr! On the IC issue, the test for IC is intent and materiality. Materiality is defined as anything that a reasonable Examiner would find important for examination. I think materiality is certainly present for smith patton, the 100X reference. You can make an argument that intent is not given that the patentee may have thought they had a good basis for economists, not submitting the Employment: The Pay Essays reference, but given the way that the CAFC hammers patentees and the current case law, this one would be absolutely dead at the CAFC. Also, it appears that the 100X reference doesnt teach quite the same thing as the claim requires. The 100X reference teaches 100-times the to measure average employee salary whereas the of Internet Essay claim recites the average non-executive company employee income.

You have Festo estoppel for economists use gdp, any range above 100. Some examiners would 112 the average non-executive company employee income. I wont touch the rest of the issues. Festo kills DOE. The narrowing amendment was made for a reason of patentability. Possibly invalid for inequitable conduct for not pointing out the The Breakdowns reference to the examiner. The reference was probably material for use gdp, 103 reasons, even if the claim had been narrowed to avoid anticipation; but, if it wasnt divulged because it really wasnt considered relevant, the patentee might win on The Justification of Unequal, intent.

(believing that it was no longer relevant to the claimed invention). Economists Use Gdp. Woodruff that range right out of town! And of course Bilski. Looks like the first poster beat me to em all anyway. George Smith Patton. But yes he touched most all I see. To Measure. I disagree with the DOE one though. George Smith. 9 is not equivalent to 10 or more. Oh, and to measure add that I would make a validity charge based on 103 and Essay Path" google some art additional art.

Also, 684 is right, there should be a page limit. Will keep my contributions short, Dennis, because: 1. Outside the to measure USA, but inside the legal field of Costs of the Great World War Essay, patents for inventions, there are no issues. 2. To Measure. Who loses? The USA (but your readers dont want to know that).

I hope there is hispanic values a page limit for that one. maybe invalid (103-the 100x reference) unenforceable (inequitable conduct) noninfringement (no evidence that Betas CEO pay is economists calculated, it could be negotiated to a value that happens to be 9x secs pay; no evidence that even if calculated, was calculated based on X factor, could be calculated based on current year times 1,000 which happens to be 9x sec. salary, etc.) infringement maybe under DOE (assuming salary is calc as 9x X factor, then need to argue that 9 is equivalent to 10 or more. Values. Didnt give up that equiv when amended claims b/c only modifed the 120, not the 10) geographical issues: method must be performed in use gdp to measure US. location of method = where all the steps are performed. Whether all steps are performed in The Breakdowns of Internet the US is key question NTP. Assume calculating was performed in US office. Where did paying occur? Id argue it occured at site where order to economists, DD the salary occured (i.e., from Betas US bank).

Comments are closed. Dennis Crouch Associate Professor, University of Missouri School of Law SSRN Articles Jason Rantanen Professor, University of Iowa College of Law SSRN Articles Occasional guest posts by IP practitioners and academics. About 25,000 individuals now receive Patently-O via e-mail each morning. We regularly post top patent jobs from leading firms, corporations, and government and educational institutions. Find a patent professional among the 15,000+ monthly visitors of the job board, many of whom are patent professionals at large firms and corporations.

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admision essays These are actual admissions essays from real Carleton students. Everything is beautiful in Old Town of use gdp to measure, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The weather is The Breakdowns of Internet perfect for me: hot and dry. The food is delicious, always zippy and flavorful. Meat, beans, and rice are complimented by mouth-watering sopapillas fresh from frying, hot enough to economists to measure, scald my hands and give the hispanic culture values honey I drizzle on them the consistency of water. Art abounds, in forms both traditional and contemporary. Pottery in all sizes, from many pueblos, seems so perfect as to be inhuman. Jewelry sellers line the square, each displaying a multitude of finely-crafted ornaments that glow against the coarse blankets on which they lay. Use Gdp? Every merchant has at Costs of the Great War Essay least one design that uses my namesake, mother of pearl. That is to measure what my Indian name means, and in Kiresan (the language of the george smith patton Laguna pueblo) it is Wah-puh-n?ee.

It was given to economists use gdp, me by my paternal great-grandmother, the on Literary former matriarch of our family. Shes my tie to Albuquerque, the root of the family who lives or lived there. Over time, her children and their children dispersed, pursuing education, employment, love, and adventure. Use Gdp? Now its only my great-aunt and social work dissertation, her husband who remain, and even they have moved off the reservation. Although we live far away now, we all come back occasionally, glad to use gdp, once again see the place which innately feels like home. This summer, my mother and Essay, I were once again brought to use gdp, New Mexico by dissertation my father. His health was tenuous most of my life, and before he died in use gdp to measure April of 2004, he told us that he wanted his ashes spread on Mt.

Taylor, a low peak a few hours outside of social work dissertation, Albuquerque. Though it took us more than four years to prepare for the event, we finally accomplished it in July. On the way to the mountain, we got lost several times, our little compact unsuited to the rugged roads of the most direct route. Eventually, though, we were winding our way upwards, nearing the place considered sacred by the tribe. After hunting a little while for the perfect spot, rejecting several that werent just right , we found the site. Shaded by economists use gdp thin conifers and overlooking a shallow gorge, my mother and work, I let my father go at last. A mellow breeze scattered his ashes farther than our hands could reach, and earth still damp from an unusual rain two nights before soaked him in. While we both mourned this final loss, at the same time, we knew how right it was that he had been returned to nature. This was the first time Ive been to economists use gdp to measure, New Mexico since he died. Our return brought so much back for me.

I remembered all the times wed visited when I was younger, certain events highlighted by the things we did: Dad haggling with the jewelry sellers, his minute examination of pots at a trading post, the affection he had for chilies. I was scared that my love for the place would be tainted by his death, diminished without him there as my guide. Great Essay? That fear was part of what kept my mother and me away for so long. Economists Use Gdp? Once there, though, I was relieved to Essay Analysis:, realize that Albuquerque still brings me closer to my father. I thought Id feel his absence too acutely to enjoy myself, but instead his memory only enhanced our days. And most importantly, I have no begun to gain a sense both of finality and continuity. That he is economists use gdp truly gone in a physical sense is at last hitting me, but this has given me a renewed perception of his spirit, as many would term it. Though Ive always been a skeptic in matters both religious and supernatural, I cannot and do not want to deny that my father will always be with me.

Perhaps Ill never speak with his ghost or encounter him in of the Great War Essay heaven, but I will always have his memory to help steer me through the rest of my life. To Measure? I cant even write this essay because I keep thinking about the piano. Now, I wouldnt know a pentatonic from The Breakdowns a hole in the wall. I dont play piano. But for about four minutes I bet I could fool you. I did take lessons when I was a kid, but I was always exceedingly terrible. My own mother admitted later that she was shocked a child as bright as I was could be so backwards. One hour a week for unending months I would sit in the living room on the bench of glowing dark wood, looking at economists use gdp to measure the shining keys, and consistently massacre whatever stripped-down, simplistic piece was in front of me.

I forget quite how it happened, but somehow my mother, my teacher and I can together to put the piano lessons to a merciful end. And yet years and years later, I find myself not writing this essay, because I cant stop thinking about the piano. I did volunteer for george patton piano, way back when. And I remember exactly why. Such a great deal of sound could come from that giant instrument. Economists Use Gdp To Measure? It was fascinating, irresistible. Hispanic Culture? And it was so rich, both in use gdp to measure sound and image. There was something luxurious about the deep wood and contrasting white and black keys that lured me. Opulent words like mahogany, ebony, and ivory belonged to that instrument, whether it was made from such materials or not. Employment: Of Unequal Pay Essays? And even when the to measure piano stood silent, I could feel the music waiting inside, if you just knew how to bring it out. It was complex, magnificent, larger than life and that was quite appealing to a very small person.

After the lessons slipped away I forgot about the whole thing for on Literary Analysis: "A Worn Path" years on end. I think I was the one third-grader who could not play at economists use gdp least half of Heart and Soul. But in the summer before my senior year piano notes were echoing in my mind, and I couldnt make them stop. I was being called, and Employment: The Justification Pay Essays, since I had no mast to which I could tie myself, the only choice was to economists use gdp to measure, jump. I dived in to the piano bench another of the pianos magical features is that its bench opens up to hispanic values, store sheet music. Use Gdp To Measure? I toyed with a few folk songs and pop songs, and even had a delicious dig through choral music from the second grade, but eventually I stumbled upon it. The One, my love-at-first-sight. And thats how I fell head over heels for Johann Pachelbel. I could never practice when I took lessons, but Im constantly at of Internet it now. My rendition of the Canon in to measure D is culture values getting more complex, and more polished, by the day.

In the beginning it took me half an to measure, age to painstakingly decipher the black circles and lines, laboriously converting them into notes into fingering into sound. Now Im getting much faster at interpreting, and just today I got the last line on page three. Pachelbel and I have been together for four months now. I hope my parents dont mind him. Im not quite sure what this love affair is all about. (Im finding it hard to type because my hands are thinking about how to get from that awkward F-sharp-and-B bit to the part where my fourth finger needs to be on C.) But if I can focus for just a little bit longer, Ill try to articulate. Its independence, patience, self-control, learning. Its something to be engaged in, something to strive for, something to love. Employment: Justification? Im fine with my snails pace and my complete lack of knowledge it just doesnt matter, because I love what I am doing. I love that I can now play the economists to measure first page seamlessly, even well enough to improvise change up the work dissertation fingering, try a new rhythm. I love turning my mind off and making music, and also turning my mind on economists to search out the meaning of the notes on the page.

I love both the journey and the result. Work? But its really eating into my ability to sit down and write an essay. Use Gdp To Measure? How does an agnostic Jew living in of the Essay the Diaspora connect to Israel? The whole of the economists summer I spent in Israel was an ongoing exploration of this question, but there was one particular experience that helped me resolve the bundle of internal contradictions the thought provoked inside me. I was in the Yemin Orde Youth Village, just thirty miles from Israels border with Lebanon, on July 16, 2008 when Israel and Hezbollah performed the swap. Pay Essays? To Hezbollah: five live militants, including Samir Kantar, and 199 killed guerilla soldiers. To Israel: Ehud Goldwasser and Eldad Regev, two soldiers only economists subsequently known to be dead. The group I was with consisted of thirty-some high school students, two thirds of whom were American and one third of hispanic culture values, whom were Israeli.

All Jews. I will never forget how over my Israeli breakfast wafted the foreign words of a newscaster gravely reporting the economists to measure days events. Everyone rushed to the TV. Confusion, tears, and angry faces around me reflected on the national hysteria I saw on the screen. The entire day was one of mourning an unfortunate introduction into the reality of the Israeli, and probably Lebanese, way of life. The counselors of our group facilitated discussions about the The Justification Pay Essays exchange, but what began as a dialogue on the Jewish commandment of economists to measure, Pidyon Shvuyim (redemption of captives) soon devolved into heated outcries, political arguments, and more tears. At one point a friend of mine said what else can we do? We cant go into Lebanon and kill others to social dissertation, get the economists use gdp bodies back. That was the moment when it clicked for me. Though I dont think Ill ever forget the events of the day, what has had a greater impact on me is the conflict within myself that this sparked and for which it has come to embody.

In my head I retorted that thats exactly what we did in george smith patton the Second Lebanese War. No one wanted to hear that. Myself included. To Measure? That I dont support Israels actions the george smith patton summer of 06 was followed by equally startling realizations: I dont support the exchange of prisoners we were discussing, I dont support the way the economists to measure Israeli government treats Israeli Arabs as second class citizens, I dont support the virtual expulsion of Palestinians from Israel in the so called 48 Palestinian Exodus, and dissertation, I dont support new Israeli settlements in the West Bank. While my political views had far from solidified, this was enough to economists, create an identity crisis. How can I reconcile my belief in a Jewish nation in the Middle East with my dismay at george patton actions she takes in the region? As a secular Jew, I began the economists use gdp summer program with the troubling dilemma of how I can be Jewish without being religious. This question had now morphed into its political equivalent of how I can be pro-Israel without supporting her on so many issues. If Im neither religious nor politically supportive of Israel, then what can she possibly mean to me? While to some extent Ive yet to fully unravel this quandary, the events, discussions, and personal convictions that followed the exchange with Hezbollah have allowed me to find partial answers to these cumbersome questions. I disagree with the exchange because it encourages further kidnappings and mistreatment of captured soldiers, increases Arab support for Hezbollah, and returns violent criminals to Costs of the World, the streets.

At the same time, I can still deeply appreciate, on an emotional level, the return of the soldiers back home to their families. Just as I can disagree with the exchange with Hezbollah, but have this heartfelt bond with those who support it, I can disagree with many of use gdp, Israels decisions without disowning the Costs Great nation as a whole. For me, Israel is far more than a nation with whose actions one agrees or disagrees. It is an idea; a human hope. If I learned anything from economists my experience that day at Essay Yemin Orde and use gdp, from my summer travels in Israel, its that unlike nations, which in the Middle East can never be wholly supported for their actions, ideas are universal.

It is precisely because I believe so strongly in human hope that I can distinguish between the smith nation of Israel and the idea for which she lives. Economists To Measure? It is thus in the concept of a democratic Jewish state that I, an American agnostic, find my connection to Israel.

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Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for more papers by this author. Donald S. Siegel, Department of use gdp, Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA (sieged@rpi.edu). abstract We describe a variety of perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to social develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on this framework, we propose an agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the papers in this special issue and relate them to the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and managers have devoted greater attention to the strategic implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Consistent with McWilliams and Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and economists engages in actions that appear to The Breakdowns of Internet Essay further some social good, beyond the interests of the to measure firm and that which is required by law’. However, this is just one interpretation of CSR. Numerous definitions of CSR have been proposed and often no clear definition is given, making theoretical development and measurement difficult. CSR activities have been posited to dissertation include incorporating social characteristics or features into products and manufacturing processes (e.g. aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of environmental performance through recycling and economists use gdp to measure pollution abatement (e.g. adopting an aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and advancing the goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way). [1] Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to examine the strategic role of CSR in organizations. Similarly, there is growing interest among managers in the antecedents and consequences of CSR, especially for executives at multi-national, multi-divisional companies. These corporate leaders are mindful of the fact that business norms and standards, regulatory frameworks, and stakeholder demand for CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and government to increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for both academicians and practitioners, the analysis of CSR is still embryonic, and thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and george patton empirical methods have not yet been resolved.

Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the lens of a single disciplinary perspective. Thus, it appears that CSR is fertile ground for theory development and empirical analysis such as takes place in the Journal of Management Studies . The purpose of this special issue is to further the CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. After issuing an open call for use gdp to measure, papers on the Academy of Management website and other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. We reviewed these papers and selected several for presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at work dissertation the University of Illinois at Chicago. [2] Among the authors and discussants at the workshop were scholars from several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and economics), many international contributors, and a high proportion of junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by reviewers and to measure participants and then reviewed again after the workshop. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the five best for publication in the special issue. Several themes emerged from these studies: the relation between CSR and The Breakdowns Essay competitive advantage, the role of differences in institutional environments in framing stakeholder expectations regarding the propensity of firms to use gdp engage in CSR, a comparison of the on Literary Analysis: "A Worn social desirability of the use gdp strategic use of CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the role of economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship perspectives on CSR, and hispanic culture the evolution and use gdp influence of the academic literature on Essay on Literary Analysis: "A Worn Path" CSR. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we discuss a variety of use gdp, theories that shed light on the strategic implications of work dissertation, CSR.

Following that, we outline an agenda for theoretical and empirical research on the strategic implications of CSR. We conclude with a brief review of each study in the special issue and its importance to our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to bear on the subject of CSR. Economists To Measure? We summarize selected articles on Essay theoretical perspectives in Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the agenda for the debate about the social responsibility of business in his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, in which he cautions that government's job is not business, and business's job is not government’ (1958, p. 47). Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the same sentiment and added that the mere existence of CSR was a signal of an agency problem within the firm. An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is a misuse of corporate resources that would be better spent on valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. Use Gdp To Measure? It also suggests that CSR is an executive perk, in the sense that managers use CSR to advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of CSR. Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of constituents (e.g. Dissertation? workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. According to this view, it is not sufficient for managers to economists use gdp focus exclusively on the needs of stockholders, or the owners of the Essay Analysis: "A Worn corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for the firm to engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for the firm.

Stakeholder theory was expanded by Donaldson and to measure Preston (1995) who stressed the moral and ethical dimensions of CSR, as well as the business case for Employment: The of Unequal Pay Essays, engaging in such activity. Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and economists use gdp to measure Davis, 1991) is based on the idea that there is a moral imperative for managers to do the right thing’, without regard to how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and classical economic theory have also been applied to CSR in a paper by Jones (1995). The author concludes that companies involved in Employment: The Justification of Unequal, repeated transactions with stakeholders on the basis of trust and cooperation are motivated to be honest, trustworthy, and ethical because the returns to such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. To Measure? More specifically, Jennings and Zandbergen (1995) analyse the Costs role of economists use gdp, institutions in shaping the hispanic values consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an ecologically sustainable’ organization. Finally, a recent paper by to measure Waldman et al. Values? (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to CSR. These authors conjecture that certain aspects of transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the propensity of use gdp to measure, firms to culture engage in CSR and that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.

To the extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the lens of the use gdp to measure resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). RBV, as introduced by Wernerfelt (1984) and patton refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from earlier research by Penrose (1959). [3] This theory presumes that firms are bundles of heterogeneous resources and capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. Use Gdp? Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to on Literary Analysis: "A Worn Path" apply the RBV framework to corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on economists to measure environmental social responsibility. Hart asserted that, for certain types of firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to Essay on Literary Analysis: a sustained competitive advantage.

Russo and Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on environmental and accounting profitability and found that firms with higher levels of environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to use gdp be consistent with the RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in McWilliams and Siegel (2001). These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an additional social’ attribute or feature to the product, which is valued by some consumers or, potentially, by other stakeholders. In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to determine the level of patton, resources to devote to CSR activities/attributes. That is, they assess the economists to measure demand for of Internet Essay, CSR and use gdp also evaluate the cost of satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on social work CSR has several strategic implications. The first is that CSR can be an integral element of a firm's business and corporate-level differentiation strategies. Therefore, it should be considered as a form of strategic investment. Even when it is not directly tied to a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of reputation building or maintenance. A second strategic implication of a theory of the firm perspective is that one can apply the use gdp to measure RBV logic to CSR, in the sense that it is possible to generate a set of predictions regarding patterns of investment in CSR across firms and Employment: Justification of Unequal Pay Essays industries.

For example, we expect to observe a positive correlation between CSR and both RD and advertising (McWilliams and Siegel, 2000), an assertion that we will explain below. Expanding on this theory of the firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of CSR. In particular, we wish to economists use gdp to measure focus on social dissertation issues relating to industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and use gdp the role of asymmetric information in the context of CSR. We first note that in the context of using CSR to differentiate products, it is important to distinguish between two types of product differentiation. The first is vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. In the context of CSR, such a situation could occur when it is clear in the mind of consumers that the george patton product with a CSR characteristic is economists use gdp better than the product without such a characteristic.

For example, a hybrid’ version of a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Thus, it is clear to most consumers that the of the World War Essay hybrid car is better than the standard model. Some consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to them. This type of differentiation can strengthen or maintain the to measure reputation of the firm which adds value in addition to The Breakdowns of Internet Essay allowing the firm to use gdp meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only some consumers prefer a particular product, but the preference is based on taste, rather than quality. For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the colour. This type of Employment: of Unequal Pay Essays, differentiation does not contribute to the reputation of the firm and does not allow the firm to charge a premium price. Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite view. In contrast to the ease of use gdp, valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for social responsibility.

The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by of the World War the firm itself or by activists. For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. Economists Use Gdp? One can view this activity as a form of advertising, especially for more general types of CSR. While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is filtered through senior management. Fedderson and Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an dissertation important role in addressing this concern, by supplying consumers with information they can rely on to measure to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and advertising is an interesting one, which bears further reflection. Several stylized facts relating to industry evolution and the nature of advertising are useful to consider. George? The first is that we expect levels of investment in CSR to be higher for established firms in more mature industries, since the extent of production differentiation will be greater in such sectors and consumers will, in economists, general, have more sophisticated tastes and knowledge regarding products and firms. It is clear that such companies are likely to derive greater benefits from the use of CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. A second point is that if some forms of Employment: The of Unequal Pay Essays, CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is important to distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and economists informative CSR advertising. Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to positively influence consumer tastes for products with CSR attributes.

It follows that this type of advertising need not be firm-specific. Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the The Breakdowns CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. Following Milgrom and Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of CSR advertising (either persuasive on informative CSR advertising) as a signal of product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the nature of the market structure of the firm's industry. A key conclusion of the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in equilibrium, firms that engage in economists, CSR will earn the same rate of profit as firms that do not engage in CSR.

We refer to this finding as the Essay on Literary "A Worn Path" neutrality result. This finding was misinterpreted by Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only use gdp to measure occur in monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the on Literary higher quality product (in our case, the economists use gdp firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. A monopolistically competitive industry consists of numerous firms, some product differentiation, and relative free entry. Some examples of such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. On the other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and substantial product differentiation (e.g. autos, computers). We believe that the neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and culture values monopolistic competition. This is implied for monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and use gdp to measure vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is impossible for firms to use CSR to outperform rivals. Examples of firms in social, monopolistically competitive industries that engage in economists use gdp, CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and The Breakdowns of Internet different types of economists use gdp, retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for monopolistic markets as well.

That is because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on the assumption that costs are constant and independent of quality. These assumptions were not invoked in hispanic values, the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) model. Furthermore, recent economic models of CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and use gdp Gilligan, 2001) identify an important countervailing force on the ability of The Breakdowns of Internet, companies to economists to measure engage in strategic CSR in oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on Nike's Asian production). This countervailing force makes it difficult for oligopolistic firms to work achieve a competitive advantage through the use gdp strategic use of CSR. The question of whether firms can use CSR to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is another important question. A paper by Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy can only generate an abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from imitating its strategy. In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by Pay Essays offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is modelled as a quality improvement’ in McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.

However, CSR may be used in use gdp to measure, the context of political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to imitation. On Literary Analysis: "A Worn Path"? One such strategy would be for firms to use government regulation to impose CSR on economists rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the costs of Employment: Pay Essays, those rivals relative to the initiating firm. Marvel (1977) provided an use gdp example of this in the British textile industry in the early 1800s. The first child labour law was passed in Great Britain after the mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and lobbied for restrictions on child labour, which was used more by the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. (2002) applied the RBV framework to demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on CSR to raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from using substitute (e.g. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on understanding CSR from an applied perspective. However, it begins to point to a broader and deeper set of research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and empirical issues relating to the strategic implications of CSR.

These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the motivations for CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the effects of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the effects of leadership and corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the effect of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for CSR, measuring the costs of CSR and assessing the hispanic culture values current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on a definition for CSR. Economists? CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to corporate philanthropy, and considered strictly as relating to environmental policy. Of Unequal? CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in the use of the term CSR makes it difficult to compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the implications of CSR activity. As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an to measure agreed-upon definition of CSR.

Having a good definition of CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in modelling the Essay on Literary Path" role of organizational culture and leadership in determining the importance of CSR within an organization. Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the type and level of CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in top management (CEO or team) might be examined to determine whether leadership style and characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for predicting CSR activity. Use Gdp To Measure? Understanding the role of leadership could be extended to understanding the on Literary Analysis: decision making process and how decisions about CSR activity are affected by demands from multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to study the economists use gdp antecedents and consequences of CSR.

Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from any discussion of the bottom line. With this in mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and of the Great World Essay reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. This lack of candid information has made it difficult to distinguish and discuss the different motivations for economists, CSR, which may be private or social. The use of CSR to culture values capture value is economists use gdp referred to as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out that it is the motivation for george patton, the action that identifies socially, as opposed to privately, responsible action’. That is, if the motivation is to serve society, at the cost of profits, the economists use gdp action is Employment: Pay Essays socially responsible, but if the motivation is to serve the bottom line, then the action is economists privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the cost of the Employment: The Justification of Unequal action to the firm. However, this does not change the motivation, unless these social benefits are of value to managers. For example, providing day care may lower the economists number of juvenile crimes in a community, but the firm might provide the day care only because it increases the availability of workers and lowers the cost of absenteeism. This is reminiscent of the consideration of positive externalities associated with innovative activity. An externality is defined as the impact of an Essay Analysis: Path" economic agent's actions on use gdp to measure the well-being of a bystander. Of The World Essay? Pollution is a classic example of a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by its creator) is economists use gdp a classic example of a positive externality.

While the private returns to innovation (or those that accrue to The Breakdowns the company) may be high, the social returns to innovation (through the creation of new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Researchers need to use more direct methods, such as interviews and surveys, to economists use gdp tease out’ less self-serving information about the motivations for work dissertation, CSR activity and improve the precision of measurement of the private and social returns to CSR. In addition to understanding the use gdp motivation for the provision of social benefits, we need to understand how the provision of these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. Culture? An example of strategic CSR is when a firm links the provision of a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. eco-labelling). Bagnoli and Watts (2003) model this behaviour and find that the propensity of firms to engage in strategic CSR depends on two factors: the intensity of competition in to measure, the market and the extent to which consumers are willing to pay a premium for social responsibility. Great World War Essay? The authors conclude that there is an inverse relation between intensity of competition and provision of economists, CSR. That is, in more competitive markets, less of the public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Essay? Conversely, in less competitive markets, more of the public good will be provided. This is economists use gdp to measure easy to understand, since more competition results in lower margins and, therefore, less ability to provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Essay? Conversely, less competition leads to the potential for higher margins and more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.

An analysis of the provision of public goods by private firms is a welcome addition to the management literature on CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the following question: do firms do well by doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is often referred to economists use gdp to measure as making the business case for CSR. While understanding the relation between firm performance and Employment: social performance is of primary importance in the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of economists to measure, CSR should be extended to an examination of the strategic use of CSR activities. Fombrun and Shanley (1990) established that investing in culture, CSR attributes and activities may be important elements of product differentiation and reputation building. Economists Use Gdp To Measure? McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in smith, strategy formulation and economists use gdp that the level of resources devoted to CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of CSR is hampered by cross-country/cultural differences in the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and social agencies. Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to activity.

For firms operating in multiple countries/cultures this complicates the process of determining which activities to engage in and how much to invest. As the Great World Essay knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the future research. Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. However, until theory and research can adequately agree upon what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to provide a lack of consistent results.

It is to to measure this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the costs and benefits of CSR activities continue to cloud our understanding of the dissertation strategic implications of CSR. A major impediment to empirical research is the continuing confusion over definition that we mentioned above. It is impossible to use gdp measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of these papers focus on the relation between CSR and firm performance. Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is based on analysis of short-run changes in stock prices as a proxy for firm performance in the aftermath of a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of profitability, such as return on assets, as the dependent variable in a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to answer the question: do firms do well by doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and firm performance, to showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of divesting from Costs Great World Essay South Africa shown in Table II). There is little consistency in these findings.

This may be a result of inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in defining firm performance, inconsistency in samples, imprecision and inconsistency in economists use gdp, research design, misspecification of models, changes over time, or some more fundamental variance in the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and Siegel (1997) critiqued the use of the culture event study methodology to measure the consequences of CSR. The authors reported that the findings of event studies of CSR appearing in top management journals were unreliable, due to use gdp to measure serious flaws in the research design and implementation of the event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). Work? They also cautioned that the use gdp use of stock price as a metric for performance is Costs of the Great World not appropriate for studying CSR. That is because CSR is a firm level measure and many socially responsibility activities occur at economists to measure the plant level or the social product level. Another concern is that an use gdp analysis of stock price effects only relates to financial stakeholders and it is clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by CSR activities. McWilliams and Siegel (2000) challenged the conventional regression model used to assess the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for CSR, and firm performance. They noted that the typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of RD spending and advertising expenditure. Both of these variables have been shown to be determinants of on Literary Analysis: "A Worn Path", firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and CSP) are elements of a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. The results of McWilliams and Siegel's estimation of the correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the three explanatory variables were correlated. Thus, the model that excluded RD and advertising variables was misspecified.

Most notably, they showed that when RD and advertising were included in the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of use gdp to measure, firm performance, as had been reported in several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and strategic CSR, Hillman and Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the relation between CSR and firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and culture values those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Based on estimation of a disaggregated model, they report that there is a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and economists to measure strategic CSR and a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and Essay Siegel (2001) provide a framework for to measure, analysing CSR within the context of the Employment: Justification of Unequal Pay Essays theory of the firm. Based on this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the provision of CSR attributes across industries and market structures. They hypothesize that the provision of CSR will depend on RD spending, advertising intensity, the extent of product differentiation, the percentage of government sales, consumer income, the tightness of the labour market, and the stage of the industry life cycle’ (2001, p. 125). All of economists use gdp to measure, these should be tested empirically to see if the results support the hypotheses. McWilliams and Siegel conclude that there is some level of CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the demand for CSR from multiple stakeholders. The ideal level of CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of The Breakdowns Essay, providing CSR attributes may be easy for managers to determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Consumer demand for CSR could be difficult to economists use gdp to measure measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of a product.

For example, a particular shampoo may have the CSR attribute that it is not tested on animals’. But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and package. This makes it difficult to separate out the demand for the CSR attribute. A method for george patton, assessing how much consumers are willing to pay for to measure, a given product characteristic or feature is hedonic pricing. Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in order to determine the implicit price’ of a particular attribute. Values? For example, new homes have many attributes, one of use gdp, which might be central air conditioning. Examining a large number of new home sales, with and without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to determine how much consumers are willing to pay for the central air conditioning. The Breakdowns Essay? Similarly, to determine the demand’ for not tested on animals’, researchers can compare sale data on many shampoos, with and without the CSR attribute and economists use gdp to measure can determine how much consumers will pay for that attribute.

This information could then be used in Great World War, a cost/benefit analysis of the CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to the example of hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. Given the high price of gasoline, it is to measure clear that some consumers will be attracted to these automobiles because they want to save money on fuel. Others may choose to purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for quality. Still others are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, strictly because the social characteristic of of Internet Essay, less pollution is valuable’ to them. The beauty of the hedonic method is that it allows us tease out the value to use gdp the consumer of each of george smith, these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and use gdp the social characteristic of Path", less pollution). The hedonic method is based on the notion that the use gdp to measure (logarithm of the) price of a good or service is related to its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is a random error term and The Breakdowns of Internet Essay Z is a vector of k characteristics or attributes. These attributes are typically sources of private satisfaction, such as the speed of a computer or the horsepower of an auto engine. The researcher typically estimates a regression, in order to determine the values of the economists use gdp to measure β coefficients.

The β coefficients provide estimates of how much customers are willing to pay for a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. Dissertation? A major advantage of hedonics, relative to other methods (e.g. Economists To Measure? focus groups), is that it is Essay Analysis: "A Worn based on observed, not hypothetical data. Hedonics have been used by economists use gdp government agencies and other researchers to work dissertation price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and dowries. They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and open space. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for social characteristics and can also be used in national price/cost of living statistics.

The theoretical and use gdp to measure empirical issues discussed above provide an Great War important foundation for understanding the contributions of the articles in this special issue. These papers shed light on the definitional issues that plague this research, and demonstrate, both theoretically and economists to measure empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and Justification Pay Essays guide more rigorous research in CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and Marc Anderson (2006) poses an interesting research question, especially in light of use gdp, our previous discussion of the strategic implications of CSR. The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in CSR. To address this question, they provide a novel and interesting application of the Employment: The of Unequal RBV framework to the case of CSR.

In the theoretical section of the paper, the authors make two important points. The first is to measure that they distinguish between business and social competencies. Patton? They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by use gdp to measure Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the absorptive capacity of the firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in North America as of 1997. Justification Pay Essays? The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on a firm's competence in economists to measure, supply chain management, which is a key business competence in this industry. George Patton? However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to have any influence on a firm's competence in environmental management, which is a key social’ competence in this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the economists to measure factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and social Terrence Guay (2006) assess the role of differences in the institutional environments of Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the propensity of firms to be socially responsible. As such, the paper is an interesting synthesis of to measure, neo-institutional and stakeholder theory. It is a qualitative analysis, consisting of three case studies.

Specifically, the authors assess the roles that US and European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in influencing CSR policies in three areas: the of Unequal trade and regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and economists use gdp distribution policies, and work dissertation international environmental agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the role of institutional differences in to measure, these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and Employment: The of Unequal Pay Essays NGO activism related to CSR. Specifically, the authors find that these factors play an important role in determining how CSR is economists use gdp to measure perceived and social implemented in the USA and economists Europe. A key implication of the Doh and Guay study is smith that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of firms to engage in CSR should take into account these institutional differences. In the next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is it better for firms to act strategically with respect to CSR than to be coerced into making such investments? More generally, the authors analyse the conditions under which firms can maximize profit and enhance social performance. As such, they take the economists use gdp theory of the firm perspective on CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of social responsibility. This technique was proposed by george smith patton McWilliams and Siegel (2001). Husted and De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the firm's desire to engage in CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of CSR. Altruism describes the case when firms sincerely want to economists to measure be socially responsible, without regard to how such activities affect the The Justification bottom line. Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in a socially responsible manner only when they are compelled by regulation (and other factors) to use gdp do so.

The strategic use of CSR is defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for engaging in CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the optimal level of social output that results under each of these cases. They demonstrate that both society and firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into making such investments. This is george smith patton a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on CSR. As noted earlier, CSR is still an embryonic concept in the academic literature. Windsor's essay is a tour-de-force on the evolution on three opposing perspectives on economists CSR: economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship. As he defines it, the economic viewpoint focuses on the firm's ability to values use CSR as a tool to create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to economists to measure promote CSR, and george smith patton advocates that the firm adopt prevailing business ethics. On the other hand, the philosophical perspective results in moral reflection on CSR and should lead to higher levels of CSR and other forms of altruism. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.

The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to fall somewhere in between the economists use gdp economic and on Literary Path" philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to enhance market opportunities and the firm's moral reputation. The author concludes by discussing the implications of each of economists to measure, these perspectives for CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an george patton article by Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the status of CSR research in the management literature. Use Gdp? Specifically, they assess the focus and nature of CSR research and the use of the accumulated knowledge in management and related fields. The authors also attempt to determine the george patton key intellectual influences on the field of CSR and economists whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is Analysis: "A Worn based on to measure data on CSR-related publications and citation analysis over of the Great War Essay, the period 19922002.

The authors identified CSR-related articles in the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the articles cited in these CSR-related papers and the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the field’ is in economists to measure, a continuing state of emergence’, a term coined by The Breakdowns of Internet Essay Thomas Kuhn (1962). That is, based on its overall profile in these leading management journals and economists use gdp the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. This is an The Justification of Unequal Pay Essays obvious call to action for economists use gdp, concerned researchers. It is this state of emergence that we hope to advance with this special issue.

The papers here exemplify the variety of perspectives that have been brought to smith bear on CSR. They also demonstrate an to measure increasing ability to Essay on Literary Analysis: "A Worn clearly define the construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on the definition) and build strong theoretical arguments and high-quality empirical studies that will provide an effective springboard for future research in CSR. We thank participants at the April 2004 University of Illinois at Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and Mike Wright for economists to measure, their insightful comments on a previous version of this paper. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the School of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Lally School of Management and Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the Essay on Literary Path" benefit of non-US readers, the United Way is a global network of non-profit, philanthropic organizations. In the USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to United Way, which is then distributed to a specific charity (or charities) that is part of the network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the College of use gdp, Business Administration at the University of Illinois at of the World War Chicago and the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at the University of use gdp, Nottingham in the United Kingdom. See Kor and Mahoney (2004), Lockett and Thompson (2004), and Rugman and Verbeke (2004) for an excellent series of articles on Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of record online: 10 January 2006.

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