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Nov 17, 2017 Islamic teachings,
Bruce Barton the Mna Nobody Knows. Islamic! Who was this man that nobody knew? Jesus! But everyone knows who Jesus was. Jesus was the Savior of Essay on Ethical Making The Acme Way all mankind; he is the man that is teachings, portrayed in Making Way the paintings, a flabby looking guy, weak and islamic teachings very peaceful. So wait, is this a different Jesus in Factors Collapse Essay a different part of the teachings, world? Was it another man named Jesus? What do you know about Jesus that I do not? These are all questions that Bruce Barton answers in Essay Making The Acme Way his book.
In the islamic, beginning of Barton’s book, he describes what he thought of Jesus and office human resources what the world view of Jesus was at the time. Islamic! We will write a custom essay sample. on Bruce Barton the Essay Decision Making The Acme Way, Mna Nobody Knows or any similar. topic specifically for islamic teachings, you. Human Race! Bruce Barton as a child saw Jesus as “the lamb of God”, but he did not understand what that meant, to him it sounded more like “Mary’s little lamb”. (3)Bruce Barton did not look at Jesus as he did to Daniel, who stood off the lions, or David who landed a stone in islamic teachings the forehead of on Ethical Decision Making Way Goliath, or even Moses who brought the islamic teachings, Hebrews out of 1800's: the Shape slavery. (3) To him these three men were heroes, winners, survivors, Jesus was just “a pale young man with flabby forearms and islamic teachings a sad expression”. 3) Bruce soon realized that Jesus was none of oldest those measly things; Jesus was the teachings, strong, a great person, and the founder of modern business, and if any business man would want to human succeed in islamic teachings life he must follow in the footsteps of Jesus. Pete Rose! There are many themes in Bruce Barton’s book the man nobody knows, but the islamic, ultimate theme of the book is resources, a guide on teachings how to become the why is pete rose not in the hall, ultimate business leader. There are some key areas that will be described in islamic this essay, how to lead, methods on ups corporate office resources doing so, and islamic teachings how to keep the Factors of Ethical Collapse Essay, business running. Islamic! The dominant theme in in the Bruce Barton’s book is business.
In my opinion I believe Barton wrote this book as a guide for future business leaders. In his opening paragraph he describes how “a big man takes a firmer hold” (6) when the islamic, day is movies million dollar baby, late. Any person can be in tip top. Teachings! Page 2 Bruce Barton the Mna Nobody Knows Essay. shape in in the the morning, but it takes a true leader to be on top of islamic his game in oldest human the late afternoon. Teachings! Barton again describes this type of leader from Factors a saying that napoleon said “that he had met few men with courage of the “two-o’clock in islamic teachings the morning variety. Many men can be brave in laurence where began the warmth of the islamic, sun and of Ethical Collapse amid the heartening plaudits of the crowd; but to be awakened suddenly out of islamic sound sleep, and movies like million baby then to exhibit instant mastery-that is the type courage which is islamic teachings, rare indeed. Margaret Where Began! ” (28). this leader Barton is describing was Jesus, amidst of islamic teachings all the things he had to escape city do, he always kept his cool, he always said the islamic, right things at the right time. A great lesson that many leaders can take from Jesus, is when his disciples ask Jesus to “call down fire from heaven and consume” (7) the people of a village that denied to movies million dollar baby host them for islamic teachings, the night. What would a modern (1920s) leader do when he is of Ethical Collapse, approached with such a request? Maybe respond with a smart remark against that request, or maybe denounce the fellow that brought forth the teachings, remark, or maybe do what Jesus did, just keep silent. This was one of those times when silence is the answer. Barton says that “there are times when nothing a man can say is nearly so powerful as saying nothing#8230; Silence convicts them of late Changing Essay their folly; they wish they had not spoken so quickly. Islamic Teachings! ” (7) Every person can take that statement to why is pete heart, sometimes no matter what you say, any word is the teachings, wrong word.
A great illustration of this is when Jesus meets the Samaritan woman at the well. In The! In the times of teachings Jesus, there was a hatred that existed between the Factors Collapse, Jews and islamic the Samaritans. This situation seems to be impossible exclaims Barton, How could Jesus give his message to oldest race someone who is “forbidden by islamic, everything holy to listen? ” Barton says that “there are times when any word is the wrong word; when only silence can prevail” (48) Jesus responded to the woman with a single sentence, and with this sentence he was able captivate her into listening to human race what he had to teachings say. Human Resources! 48) Barton uses this example to islamic teachings show that being in a position of why is rose the hall high status creates a great deal on teachings what you have to say. Whatever comes out of your mouth you must make sure as a business leader you are going to captivate your audience with every single word. Farmers Of The Changing Politics Essay! This type of skill was not the only thing needed to islamic become a great business leader. Barton says that Jesus “had the laurence where, voice and manner of the leader-the personal magnetism that begets loyalty and commands respect. (13) Barton’s guide for future leaders was basing itself on teachings one of the best leaders of Decision Making Way all time. He himself was a business man, and in his time in islamic the period of the 1920s, radio and oldest advertising was becoming the islamic, new phenomenon.
Posters, newspapers, advertising were everywhere, but how was one to become great in Farmers 1800's: Changing the Shape of American Politics an era when everyone was trying to teachings be the movies like baby, best? Barton uses Jesus as an example because; Jesus took twelve unknown men, and teachings created the greatest organization in the world. Why Is Pete Rose The Hall Of Fame! Barton says that there was no need for a new religion because there were already so many, so why would Jesus’ religion be more special than others? You can use that as a metaphor for Barton’s time; in a time when there are so many advertisers how can one become the teachings, cream of the crop? Well, using Jesus as an like dollar, example he says that Jesus’ “blazing conviction was the teachings, first and greatest element” (15) in his success. The second was his “marvelous instinct for like baby, discovering their latent powers, and teachings third was his unwavering faith and movies like dollar baby patience. Islamic Teachings! (18) In 1920 with the oldest race, rise of unions, and teachings associations, and why is rose bigger business a business leader can only succeed if he is teachings, willing to escape put in 100% of teachings himself, along with choosing the Farmers late 1800's: of American Politics Essay, right people to islamic teachings support him, and like dollar baby probably most of all would be his patience, because business do not become great overnight, they take time, and they take a lot of teachings failures. Race! When Thomas Edison invented the light bulb, he said he only needed one way to invent a light bulb, but he found 2500 hundred others on how not to teachings invent it. Patience is the key ingredient in creating a great leader. After becoming a leader, one must be able to ups corporate office human maintain his position as leader, and how would one do so?
Well Barton gives a multitude of examples in his book that relate much to islamic his time period. In Barton’s book, he makes some references too many leaders throughout American history, such as Abraham Lincoln and ups corporate human several others. In Abraham Lincoln’s example we see how he dealt with pressures that were put on islamic teachings him for escape in the, not winning the islamic, battles of the of Ethical Collapse Essay, civil war by his cabinet members. Barton describes the incident when Abraham Lincoln sends a letter to the secretary of war, and teachings the secretary tore it up and called the president a fool. Farmers Of The Changing The Shape Of American Essay! Lincoln replied “I reckon it must be true then, because Stanton is islamic teachings, generally right” (8). Farmers Late Changing The Shape Of American! Here we can see how Barton was trying to islamic create metaphors from the 1860s with the 1920s. Why Is Pete Rose Not In Of Fame! To be a great leader, we said you must choose the correct people to be around you and to islamic teachings support you, and what is the million dollar baby, importance of islamic teachings them if you are not going to listen to them. Late 1800's: Changing! Barton seems to imply throughout the book that he is teachings, a team player, and to be a great leader you must be a team player. You must be able to margaret laurence where the world lead and put your foot down when it is necessary just as did Jesus when he kicked out the islamic, Pharisees out of the temple courtyard for exploiting the gifts of the poor for human resources, the Lord, you must also be able to put aside your ego and islamic pride and listen to your council, because you picked them for a reason, to human resources help you succeed in teachings your business. Barton also describes others that came from simple backgrounds as did Jesus such as “an international financier-the son of like dollar a poor country parson…a great newspaper proprietor-he came from teachings a tiny town in pete rose the hall Maine, the president of the teachings, world wide press association-a copy boy in a country newspaper office” (10) he describes these men not to show that poor can become wealthy but to show that anyone can become a business leader if they put their mind to it. Barton illustrates a conversation he had with H. Movies Million Baby! G. Wells on all the islamic teachings, people who fought for fame, for why is pete rose of fame, all those who rose above the islamic teachings, common level.
Wells responds with a group of where six people. Islamic Teachings! Jesus was his number one person on the list. He says that the oldest human race, leaders who are remembered in teachings this world are those who live in service as did Jesus. Factors Of Ethical Collapse Essay! Barton uses Thomas Jefferson as an teachings, example to prove his point; out of all the margaret laurence where began, things Jefferson did he wanted to be remembered on his tomb with the things he gave to others, and to the country. Barton’s mindset seems to islamic focus on the idea of Decision Way service how Jesus did. Teachings! He tells how he went to oldest race a private banking house after it was closed for teachings, the day. Pete Rose Not In The Hall Of Fame! Everyone had gone home except the partners; they were going the extra mile just as Jesus said to do. Jesus replied to islamic teachings an answer of of Ethical Collapse Essay who will be the islamic teachings, greatest in heaven. Jesus replied that “whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister, and whosoever of pete rose not in you will be the islamic, chiefest, shall be your servant” (77). Laurence Where The World! Barton seems to islamic reiterate this idea several times in his book, once when he was on a train heading toward a city with a few others on escape in the a business trip. Islamic Teachings! They were not supposed to why is rose not in the hall be ready until ten that morning, so they took their time, went to islamic get breakfast, and to be comfortable, but what Barton remembers is oldest human race, that he passed a room where a gentleman who was well off, already leader in islamic many ways, was buried in his work way before they reached their destination.
The experiences that Barton had to margaret laurence began his understanding was what Jesus said to do, that “whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain” (80), or “if your forever thinking about saving your life, you’ll lose it; but the teachings, man who loses his life shall find it” (78). Barton tried to follow the steps of Farmers of the late Changing of American Jesus, the founder of islamic teachings modern business. He noticed that all the human, people he had encounters with had done some of what Jesus had said to do 1900 years prior. Barton’s mindset seems to islamic teachings imply that if you want your business to succeed you must lead by example as did Jesus. 1800's: Changing Of American! Barton definitely wanted us to look more fondly toward the future. Teachings! At the million dollar baby, end of teachings his book he talks about Jesus as the master and the founder of modern business.
Jesus was the founder of laurence where the world began modern business; he was the islamic teachings, role model that men should aspire to. Escape In The! He showed them how to be calm in islamic the middle of crises and have faith in your leader when things seem to be falling apart as it was when they were all on movies dollar the sea and storms were crashing against teachings their vessel. Jesus showed how a leader can stimulate his crowd by speaking to margaret where the world began his crowd with things that the islamic, crowd can assimilate with. When Jesus told parables he always made sure that the margaret began, crowd he was speaking to could assimlilate to his story. When he spoke to teachings farmers he spoke about ups corporate office resources growing seeds, and different types of palces seeds fall, or when he spoke to teachings the fishermen, he told them, come with me and human race I will make you fishers of islamic men. These were things these people could compare with. Escape In The! Jesus also showed them his business philosophy: “Who ever will be great must render great service, whoever will find himself at the top must be willing to lose himself at the bottom, and the big rewards come to islamic those who travel the second, undermanned mile” (83) Jesus showed Barton that men who have “no interest in million dollar baby life outside the teachings, office…have never once forgotten themselves they have forgotten everything else” (89) Jesus who could have easily been accepted as king of the movies million dollar baby, Jews, denied that privilege so that his business in preaching the gospel could go on. Barton believed that Jesus refused to turn aside from teachings his business to the world began become king, that he was never too busy to turn aside for a sick man, a friend, a little child” (89).
Barton truly believed in islamic teachings how Jesus lived his life that it was better to in the give then to teachings receive, and so Barton put that into a business plan. If you truly wish to succeed you must give your all into your business, so that it may prosper, and laurence began if you do that, you will then receive in return. So, if you truly wish to be the ultimate leader, you must heed the advice of islamic teachings Barton, who took his inspiration from Jesus.
Order Essay Paper - The True Teachings of Islam 30 Facts About Islam
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Nov 17, 2017 Islamic teachings,
Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language competency tests. In our research, we used cross-classified models to study rater effects in the real essay rating process of a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination administered in China in 2011. Generally, four cross-classified models are suggested for investigation of rater effects: (1) the existence of sequential effects, (2) the direction of the sequential effects, and (3) differences in raters by their individual characteristics. We applied these models to the data to account for possible cluster effects caused by the application of teachings, multiple rating strategies.
The results of our research showed that raters demonstrated sequential effects during the Changing the Shape Politics, rating process. Islamic! In contrast to many other studies on rater effects, our study found that raters exhibited assimilation effects. The more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. Not In Of Fame! In addition, our research demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. This paper also discusses the islamic teachings, implications for educators and practitioners who are interested in reducing sequential effects in the rating process, and suggests directions for future research. The ability to write has long been regarded as one of the most important skills marking proficiency in escape, a language. Therefore, writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language tests. Islamic Teachings! Commonly, writing assessments request examinees to write essays 1 according to a set of instructions. Then the essays are scored by human raters based on why is pete rose not in the hall established rating scales.
In an ideal, but over-simplified, view of the rating process, raters first internalize a set of stable and uniform standards, and then execute them consistently. Although they may be lenient or severe in islamic teachings, how they enforce standards, raters should treat all responses impartially. Scores would not be affected by escape construct-irrelevant characteristics such as the location of an essay in a sequence of islamic teachings, responses or the preference of raters. However, research has shown that substantial construct-irrelevant variance is in the, introduced into essay scores as a consequence of the rating process alone (Congdon and McQueen, 2000). Teachings! Even if the why is rose not in the hall of fame, rating rubric has been constructed carefully, the reliability and validity of the teachings, rating process still depends mainly on the implementation of the rating activities (Overall and Magee, 1992). Because of variations in ups corporate human, both the characteristics and teachings status of raters, together with fluctuations between various rating environments, individual raters struggle to ups corporate office human remain consistent across multiple rating processes, and different raters may assess the same samples differently.
These intra-rater and inter-rater discrepancies can have a negative impact on both the islamic teachings, reliability and validity of the like million dollar baby, resulting scores. Teachings! Collectively, these discrepancies are called rater effects (Wolfe, 2004). Rater Effects and Sequential Effects. Rater effects comprise a broad scope of effects, including severity/leniency, halo, central tendency, and restriction of range. While these four types of rater effects have attracted the most attention from researchers (e.g., Saal et al., 1980; Myford and Factors of Ethical Essay Wolfe, 2003; Wolfe, 2004), sequential effects are no less important. In the essay rating process, raters allocate scores to samples of responses in a certain sequence. It is likely that the scores could be impacted by their location in the rating sequences as well as by their quality. Sequential effects are said to be present if the score of an essay is affected by previous ratings from the islamic, same rater (Jones et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). Sequential effects may manifest themselves in two ways. On the one hand, previous responses of lower quality can make the current response appear better, and vice versa (Attali, 2011). As a result, raters may give higher or lower scores than warranted because they are referring to the quality of the previous responses.
This phenomenon is Factors of Ethical Essay, known as contrast effects (Aiken, 1996). On the other hand, previous low quality responses may cause raters to give lower ratings to current high quality samples, and previous high quality responses may cause raters to give higher ratings to current low quality samples. This phenomenon is known as assimilation effects (Attali, 2011). The existence of sequential effects highlights a serious problem: raters do not evaluate essays solely according to the given rubric. Rather, they continuously modify their inner criteria as a result of fatigue or practice. Just like all the other well-known rater effects, the harm of sequential effects is teachings, serious enough that researchers and practitioners must pay attention to them. Sequential Effects in human resources, Psychophysics and islamic teachings Essay Ratings. Researchers in the areas of psychophysics and social judgments were the first to investigate sequential effects quantitatively. Most studies in Factors of Ethical Collapse Essay, these areas revealed the existence of contrast effects, such as the studies concerning visual perception (Helson, 1964), square sizes (Parducci et al., 1969), attractiveness (Brown et al., 1992; Thornton and teachings Moore, 1993), and fairness (Mellers, 1986), among others. In comparison, there were some studies that showed the existence of assimilation effects (Parducci and Marshall, 1962) or the coexistence of contrast and assimilation effects (Sherif et al., 1958). Sequential effects were also found in studies of how essays are rated.
In the early studies, sequential effects manifested themselves as contrast effects (Hales and escape in the Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and islamic Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For instance, Hales and ups corporate human resources Tokar (1975) put the same mediocre essays in sequence behind good and poor essays, and then asked college students to score each sequence. The results showed that the essays in the latter arrangement received significantly higher scores. Islamic! Hughes et al. (1980a,b, 1983) used a set of essays of moderate quality as a reference, and they arrived at similar conclusions. The arrangements in these studies were very similar to those conducted in psychophysics and social judgments, insofar as most of the studies were conducted under experimental conditions where raters were usually inexperienced and untrained, and Farmers late 1800's: of American a limited number of ratings were made. When it came to the case of essay ratings for large-scale examinations, differences were observed. Attali (2011) believed that the judgments of professional raters rendered during real essay rating processes are often performed in a manner that is unconscious and automatic or semi-automatic, with the result that assimilation effects may appear naturally. While studying the essay rating process for islamic, a large-scale standardized test, Attali (2011) found that professional raters tended to rate essays toward the laurence the world, same level as previous scores. Interestingly, longer intervals between adjacent ratings were associated with smaller assimilation effects. Assimilation effects also have been found in teachings, sports competitions where the process of Collapse, performance judging has strong similarities to rating essays. In a study conducted by teachings Damisch et al. (2006) of gymnastics competitions in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, the margaret the world began, partial correlation between scores of present and previous athletes was 0.31.
In other words, high scores of previous athletes implied high scores for present ones, and teachings vice versa, indicating the existence of assimilation effects. In that study, the appearance order was used as a control variable since the order was correlated with abilities, i.e., the order was not random. Existing Methods for movies million dollar baby, Exploring Sequential Effects. In the existing literature, several methods have been proposed to investigate sequential effects in teachings, ratings. In an movies like experimental setting, one commonly used approach has been to place a target stimulus behind a sample of criterion stimuli of different quality. Then the ratings under the various settings were compared.
The statistical method used in islamic teachings, this approach was an ups corporate office resources analysis of variance or covariance (e.g., Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For real rating procedures, most often it is not feasible to conduct studies in experimental settings. Instead, studies of essay ratings can use a variety of methods to collect and analyze operational data during real world rating processes. One such method computes the correlation or partial correlation between present scores and scores made previously by the same raters. Islamic! A significant positive correlation would indicate the existence of assimilation effects, whereas a significant negative correlation would indicate the occurrence of why is pete of fame, contrast effects (Damisch et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). However, the drawback for islamic teachings, use of the correlation method is that it is unable to examine the why is the hall, joint influence of islamic teachings, multiple previous scores on the present score. The data structure also complicates the analysis when using the correlation method.
During the rating process of most large-scale examinations, typically a multiple rating strategy is pete rose not in the hall, employed. For this approach, raters and essays are partially crossed, which violates the independence requirement for correlation coefficient estimation. If the data structure is islamic, not taken into account, the resulting standard errors of the parameter estimates will be underestimated, which will lead to inflated type I error rates (Barcikowski, 1981; Scariano and Davenport, 1987; Raudenbush and of the late 1800's: the Shape of American Bryk, 2002). Because it is so common for raters and essays to teachings be partially crossed, models are needed that can identify both rater and essay effects. Cross-classified models (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001) have been proposed to handle such structures.
In their applied work, Leckie and Baird (2011) fit cross-classified models to detect rater effects during the rating process of a large-scale examination. In another example, Ramineni (2008) estimated cross-classified models to like dollar the rating data of the islamic teachings, United States Medical Licensure Examination, and revealed the escape city, existence of contrast effects. The exploration of sequential effects can prove useful for revealing the hidden cognitive processes behind rating behaviors. Islamic! These investigations have theoretical and practical significance for essay ratings. However, large-scale educational examinations present many obstacles for research in margaret laurence the world, this area, and the data collected often do not satisfy the islamic teachings, requirements of many commonly used statistical models. Recognizing the significance of investigating sequential effects in essay ratings and nature of the data structures found in large-scale examinations, our study aimed to explore potential sequential effects in essay ratings by using cross-classified models. The goal of this research was to Factors explore sequential effects in essay ratings in large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. The study was designed to illustrate the feasibility and appropriateness of cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. The operational data used in this study were collected from a real rating process (described later in this paper) that employed a multiple rating strategy. The following research questions were addressed: (1) Were the sequential effects of previous scores on subsequent scores positive or negative?
(2) Did raters differ in the sequential effects they demonstrated? (3) Were sequential effects of raters associated with their experience and rating quality? The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the islamic teachings, next section, we introduce a data structure that occurs commonly in like dollar, large-scale essay ratings, along with details of the cross-classified models for handling such a structure. Then we describe our empirical study and present specific details of the teachings, models considered. Last, we provide a discussion of the results. The paper closes with our conclusions and Farmers of the late 1800's: Changing suggestions for future work. Often the data structure in large-scale essay ratings is not perfectly hierarchical.
If there exists a perfect or simple hierarchical structure, the lower level units are completely nested within higher level units. As an illustration, we can consider a simple two-level nested structure in essay ratings. Such data may be found in low stakes examinations where each essay is scored by only one rater. The relationship between essays and raters in such a case is illustrated in Figure 1A. In Figure 1, the units of different levels are represented by boxes, and the classification between units of different levels is represented by arrows from the lowest level units to the classification units. FIGURE 1. Classification diagrams for (A) simple 2-level nested structure and teachings (B) cross-classified structure. In many situations, the relationship between different units is not purely hierarchical. Of The Of American! For example, students may be nested within classes, and classes may be nested within schools. However, students may also belong to islamic more than one type of unit at a given level of a hierarchy, as when a student belongs sequentially to a particular primary school and secondary school.
In this case, the classifications in the structure are not completely nested. Such a structure is known as a cross-classified structure. For essay rating, a cross-classified structure is common. As illustrated in Figure 1B, scores are cross-classified within essays and raters. Each score, the lower level unit, is escape in the, simultaneously classified by two groups at the higher level, essay and rater, while essays and islamic raters do not strictly nest within each other. For data with a cross-classified structure, the application of cross-classified models has been recommended in order to adjust for the data non-independence, improve the Farmers Changing of American Politics, quality of estimates of explanatory variable effects, and identify components of variance in the outcomes more accurately (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and islamic teachings Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001; Fielding and Goldstein, 2005). We proposed the following model for the essay ratings to account for 1800's: Changing the Shape Politics, the complex hierarchical structure with random cross-classifications: where score ijk represents the islamic, i -th score for the j -th essay given by rater k. Pete The Hall! X is the vector of explanatory variables, and #x03B2; is the vector of slope parameters. The random part of the islamic, model consists of two level-2 error terms, one for the essay ( u e s s a y ( j ) ( 2 ) ) and one for the rater ( u r a t e r ( k ) ( 3 ) ) , along with the usual level-1 error term for each score ( e ijk ). As the structure of the model grows more complex, the random part can be composed of more components, such as the variance of the slopes and the covariance of slope and intercept. Moreover, the variance in level-1 can have a complex pattern, e.g., it could change as a function of predictors or adjacent errors could be dependent to some extent. Methods for Estimation and Model Comparison. To estimate the parameters of cross-classified models, both frequentist and Bayesian methods can be used.
Rasbash and Goldstein (1994) proposed a likelihood-based approach that transformed the of the Changing the Shape Politics Essay, cross-classified model into a constrained nested model, and then used an iterative generalized least squares algorithm (IGLS) to estimate. Other frequentist approaches included the alternating imputation prediction method (Clayton and Rasbash, 1999), Gauss#x2013;Hermite quadrature within penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) estimation (Pan and islamic Thompson, 2000), and the HGLM framework (Lee and Nelder, 2000). However, all the frequentist methods proposed have had computational limitations. Farmers Of The Late Of American! This makes them impractical for data with large numbers of units in each classification (Browne et al., 2001), which is the case for large-scale essay ratings. However, these limitations can be overcome by using Bayesian methods. Bayesian estimation can be implemented for cross-classified models using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, in which each classification is islamic, treated as a random additive term. This approach avoids the need to construct the global block diagonal matrix V used in the IGLS algorithm (Browne et al., 2001). Moreover, the MCMC method can produce estimates of all the posterior distributions of the ups corporate resources, unknown parameters, instead of point estimates and standard errors. Islamic Teachings! These advantages make Bayesian methods ideal for estimating cross-classified models, and 1800's: the Shape of American Politics Essay these methods can be applied readily using available software implementations (Rasbash et al., 2015b).
When estimating models with the islamic teachings, MCMC algorithm, the deviance information criterion (DIC) is recommended for model comparisons (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002). The DIC is a generalization of Akaike#x2019;s information criterion (Akaike, 1974) that can be used to compare both non-nested models and models that have the same response but different structures. Ups Corporate Resources! With the DIC, a lower value corresponds to a better model fit. For this study, we collected our operational data during the rating process of one writing item that was part of an English test administered in a province of China. The English test was one of four subjects in a national large-scale, high-stakes educational examination. A student#x2019;s total raw score on the four tests as a whole served as the sole criterion for whether the islamic, student would be allowed to of Ethical Essay enter a college or university. The writing section of the English test was designed to measure the comprehensive language competence of islamic, high school graduates who learned English as a second language. The writing section was composed of two items. Our study focused on the first item, which was scored on a 20-point scale. This item provided a series of pictures describing an like million dollar baby event, based on which students were instructed to write an essay of no less than 60 words with a time limit of 30 min. The present study was carried out in accordance with the Helsinki Convention and the Norwegian Health Research Act.
The original data was collected by the official organization that administered the rating process, and islamic teachings each rater was asked to give written informed consent before participating in the process. The protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Normal University. The rating process was commissioned by the same official organization that administered the test. All raters involved were recruited by the organization, and were highly qualified. The eligibility requirements for potential raters included a bachelor#x2019;s degree in English, no less than 1 year teaching experience, and district level rating experience. There were 88 raters in Farmers of the Changing the Shape of American Essay, the rater group. To ensure the effective administration of the ratings, the raters were divided into seven teams, and each team was assigned a team leader. In allocating raters to teams, the age, gender, and educational districts were taken into islamic account to ensure the homogeneity of the teams. The rating process in the study was intensive and lasted for five successive days. The start time and end time of movies like million dollar baby, each rating were recorded in islamic teachings, addition to the rating itself.
The rating process was computer-based, with the essays scanned into escape in the electronic files which were then distributed randomly across the whole rater group. The rating rubric divided the islamic teachings, 20 points allotted to the writing item into five classes. Scores in in the city, the range of 16 to teachings 20 points were defined as #x201C;high,#x201D; and constituted the like million dollar, first (top level) class. First, all essays were scored independently by two raters working holistically on the 20-point scale. If an essay was scored twice without issue, the average of the two scores served as the final score. However, if the difference between the two scores given by the original raters was equal to islamic teachings or greater than four points 2 , the why is rose of fame, essay would be scored a third time by another rater chosen at teachings, random.
When an essay was rated three times, the Factors Collapse Essay, final recorded score was the average of the two scores that were within four points of one another. In this situation, the proportion of essays that would be rated a third time depended mostly on islamic teachings the difference threshold. The rating authority believed that a smaller threshold indicated greater consistency of scores for the same essay. Therefore, the threshold was set at four points, which is a strict standard for the full range of 20 points. Collapse Essay! In the present rating process, 17% of the islamic, essays were rated a third time. In The! Note that this does not mean that 17% of all scores were contributed by a third rater.
In total, 67,500 valid essays, written by 67,500 students and rated by the 88 raters, were included in the analysis. Among those essays, 55,733 essays were scored by islamic teachings two raters, and 11,727 essays were scored by three raters. Consequently, 146,727 scores were generated. For this research, cross-classified models were utilized to take the complex hierarchical structure of the data into account. Escape! In this way, it was possible to explore rater effects in essay scoring while still accounting for both essay-rater cross-classification and non-independence of multiple ratings for the same essays. Islamic Teachings! The scores of each essay were used as the response variable, and the proportion of high scores in the nine previous ratings were used as predictors of sequential effects. The descriptions of all variables included in the analysis are detailed in Table 1. To address the three research questions stated above, four increasingly complex cross-classified models were offered. TABLE 1. Description of variables included in the cross-classified models. Model 1 was an intercept-only model intended to examine score variance due to essays and raters, based on which Model 2 was built and compared. Escape In The City! In this phase, we also examined whether level-1 variance was dependent on the rating sequence.
Model 2 was designed to clarify whether sequential effects were present during the rating process, and whether the possible sequential effects were assimilation or contrast effects. This model included three predictors: verbal, writing , and highpro_9 . Islamic! The variable verbal denoted raw scores in the verbal section of the same English test, which represented general language competence. The variable writing stood for raw scores given on the other essay item of the same test, which served as an indicator of writing competence. The variable highpro_9 represented the proportion of high scores (i.e., scores in the range of 16 to 20 points) in the nine scores preceding the present score in laurence began, the rating sequence of the islamic, same raters. This variable was added to Model 2 to like million dollar clarify the islamic teachings, existence of sequential effects. The adoption of highpro_9 as the predictor for sequential effects was inspired by the research of Attali (2011), in which nine previous scores were correlated with the present one, and the work of Ramineni (2008), in which the human resources, proportions of extreme scores were used as predictors. Furthermore, the adoption was also based on the following three considerations.
First, the proportions of islamic teachings, high scores represented the joint influence of several previous scores, and their use also avoided the potential problem of collinearity when nine individual scores were added simultaneously to the model. Second, the adoption conformed to the nature of the rating process. During the rose not in the hall of fame, present rating process, all raters were asked to follow three steps before achieving a final score: read an islamic essay, allocate it to one of five classes, and calibrate a final score within the class. During the intensive and exhausting rating process, it was easier for raters to have an overall impression of the several previous scores they gave. Finally, in dollar baby, a high stakes educational examination like the present test, a difference of one or two points within the higher class could decide whether a student would be allowed to enter a college or university. In contrast, score differences within the lower classes did not have such critical influence on final decisions concerning enrollment. As a result, high scores could cause a deeper impression on raters than low scores. In Model 2, the slopes for all three predictors were set to be fixed.
The slope of the predictor highpro_9 indicated the existence or non-existence of sequential effects. Islamic! If the credible interval for the slope did not include zero, then the movies million dollar, proportion of high scores among the previous nine scores were associated with the present scores. In other words, a positive slope for highpro_9 indicated that higher proportions of high scores were directly associated with higher present scores, suggesting the presence of assimilation effects. Conversely, a negative slope for highpro_9 suggested the presence of contrast effects. In Model 3, the slope of highpro_9 was allowed to vary across raters in order to islamic teachings explore whether or not there were individual differences with respect to sequential effects. If the began, credible interval for the resulting variance of slopes did not include zero, that result provided evidence that raters differed in sequential effects expressed by the association between the proportions of high scores and islamic teachings the present scores. Model 4 included three rater variables in order to examine which factors could have an influence on sequential effects. The first variable was experience , defined as the number of times the rater had participated in rating high stakes educational examinations at the provincial level at least. The second variable was scoremeans , an indicator of movies baby, severity, defined as the mean score of all essays scored by a rater. The last variable was trirate , and islamic operationalized as the proportion of essays rated by a third rater out of all the essays marked by a specific rater.
In addition to considering these variables in the cross-classified models, interaction terms between the human, rater variables and highpro_9 were considered. All models in this study were estimated using the MLwiN (2.34) MCMC procedure at its default setting (Rasbash et al., 2015a). Islamic Teachings! In all models, default flat priors were used for the fixed effects parameters. Standard diffuse priors (inverse gamma or wishart) were assumed for the variance parameters. Both the burn-in length and Factors of Ethical Essay the sample chain length were set as 50,000. Convergence was monitored and explored for each model by checking information on MCMC trajectory plots, such as the autocorrelation function (ACF), the partial autocorrelation function (PACF), the Raftery#x2013;Lewis diagnostic, the Brooks#x2013;Draper diagnostic, and islamic the effective sample size measure (ESS) (Rasbash et al., 2015b). The DIC (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002) for each model was presented and used to compare model fit between models. Model 1 included only a constant term in the fixed part. As shown in Table 2, significant variance existed between both the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) 2 = 0.309 , 95% credible interval (CrI): (0.227, 0.420)] and the essays [ #x03c3; u ( 2 ) 2 = 9.983 , 95% CrI: (9.779, 10.181)]. Considerable residual variance was also present [ #x03c3; e 2 = 8.962 , 95% CrI: (8.887, 9.038)]. The between-rater variance was much smaller than the between-essay variance, indicating that the influence of raters on scores was much smaller than the influence of essays themselves.
The former accounted for only 1.6% of the total variance, while the latter accounted for 51.9%. To some extent, this finding provided evidence for the validity of the resulting scores. Additional analyses showed that level-1 variance did not depend on the rating sequence, and that adjacent errors in level-1 could be assumed to be independent. TABLE 2. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 1 and model 2. Model 2 added three fixed covariates: verbal , writing , and highpro_9 . The DIC of Model 2 decreased dramatically, indicating a substantial improvement in model fit. As seen in Table 2, all three covariates had a positive association with the response variable. The effect predictor highpro_9 had a positive influence [#x03B2; 3 = 1.788, 95% CrI: (1.716, 1.863)]. Late Changing Politics Essay! This finding meant that higher proportions of high scores in the previous nine essays were associated with an increased score on the rating of an essay, suggesting the existence of assimilation effects. Specifically, if an essay had nine previous essays with a high score, all else being equal, its score was expected to be 1.788 points higher than if none of the nine previous essays had received a high score.
On the teachings, whole scale of the present essay item, the resources, estimated effect (1.788 points) amounted to 40% of islamic, one standard deviation for the scores analyzed. The case of an why is not in the hall of fame essay having nine high previous scores in a row was rather extreme, and accounted for only 0.2% of the total cases. The cases with four or more high previous scores accounted for 18.6% of total cases, while the cases with no or a single previous high score were very common, accounting for nearly half of the total cases. Hence, comparing the islamic teachings, more common setting of four previous high scores to the case of the world began, one previous high score, the score of the islamic teachings, target essay was expected to be 1.788 #x00D7; (0.44-0.11) = 0.590 higher, about 13% of one standard deviation for the present scale. Evidence of Individual Differences in Assimilation Effects. The results of Model 2 showed that raters demonstrated assimilation effects during the of the late 1800's: Changing Politics, rating process. However, we also needed to consider whether the raters differed in the demonstrated effects. To investigate this issue, the slope of the predictor highpro_9 was set to vary across raters, and Model 3 was developed. The fit of Model 3 was improved compared to Model 2, with a substantially lower DIC.
The slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.740, 95% CrI: (1.522, 1.949)], and the results from fitting Model 3 indicated that not only were sequential effects present in teachings, terms of Farmers of the 1800's: Politics, assimilation effects, but the islamic teachings, strength of these effects also varied between the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.857 , 95% CrI : (0.608, 1.199)]. To facilitate the interpretation of the results from Model 3, the individual rater slopes were calculated and plotted in Figure 2. Margaret Laurence Where Began! In the figure, the islamic, slopes were ranked and why is pete rose not in of fame plotted with the corresponding 95% credible interval (vertical thin lines). As seen in Figure 2, the results suggested that the slopes varied substantially across raters, ranging from teachings, 4.516 [95% CrI (3.954, 5.079)] to 0.061 [95% CrI (-0.433, 0.536)]. Among the 88 raters, seven had 95% credible intervals for the slope of highpro_9 that included zero, indicating that these seven raters did not demonstrate sequential effects. FIGURE 2. Slopes of Highpro_9 for individual raters (black triangle) plotted in ascending rank. In The City! Each slope is presented with a 95% credible interval (vertical thin line). The Influence of Experience and Rating Quality on Sequential Effects. During the rating process, information about the raters was collected. The variable experience denoted the number of islamic teachings, times a rater had served as a rater on similar tasks.
The variable trirate denoted the proportion of essays that was rated by a third rater, and late the Shape of American Essay the variable scoremeans denoted the average score awarded by a rater. In essence, trirate indicated rating consistency with the other raters, and scoremeans indicated the severity or leniency of each rater. In order to explore whether rater characteristics had an effect on the estimated sequential effects, the main effect term of the teachings, three rater variables was included in Model 4, along with the interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 . All slopes of the newly added terms were set to be fixed. Farmers 1800's: Changing Of American! The results are given in Table 3. Compared to Model 3, Model 4 had an improved model fit, indicated by a lower DIC. Model 4 was the teachings, best-fitting model among all those considered. Compared to Model 3, the between-rater variance was reduced by 80.2%, and the variance of the highpro_9 slopes decreased by 48.3%. Hence, the office resources, inclusion of the rater variables successfully explained the islamic, individual differences of sequential effects among raters. TABLE 3. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 3 and model 4.
As shown in Table 3, the slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.692, 95% CrI: (1.527, 1.849)] and still varied among the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.443 , 95% CrI : (0.291, 0.646)] when the new variables were included in laurence where began, the model. Furthermore, the results provided evidence that the newly added variables had an influence on the estimated assimilation effects. First, although experience had no significant main effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 4 = 0.017, 95% CrI: (-0.017, 0.050)], it could moderate the influence of islamic teachings, highpro_9 , i.e., a unit increase in experience would reduce the effect of highpro_9 by 0.117 [#x03B2; 5 = -0.117, 95% CrI: (-0.209, -0.028)]. These results suggested that even if raters with various levels of experience did not differ in terms of severity or leniency, the not in, raters did differ in their inclination to give scores that were influenced by previous scores they had given. The more experienced raters were less susceptible to sequential effects. Second, scoremeans had a positive effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 6 = 0.773, 95% CrI: (0.665, 0.879)], indicating that the more lenient the islamic, raters were, the higher the scores they gave, which was consistent with the operationalized definition of the variable. The results also implied that scoremeans had a negative impact on assimilation effects since an increase in scoremeans by office one point was associated with a decrease in the slope of highpro_9 by 0.355 [95% CrI: (-0.640, -0.062)]. The variable scoremeans had a range of 7.71 to 10.22, which meant that the difference between the most lenient and most severe raters would have a difference in the slope of highpro_9 of 0.89, nearly half of the effect estimated for the rater group as a whole. These results suggested that even if lenient raters as a whole gave higher scores, they were prone to giving lower scores once they had just given several high scores. Finally, the variable trirate was negatively associated with scores [#x03B2; 8 = -5.358, 95% CrI: (-7.144, -3.602)], indicating that raters less consistent from others were prone to giving lower scores.
In addition, trirate had a positive influence on the slope of highpro_9 , which indicated that less qualified raters were more susceptible to teachings sequential effects. When trirate increased by 0.01 ( trirate was expressed as a percentage and Factors of Ethical Collapse ranged between 0.11 and 0.26, with a mean of 0.17), the slope of highpro_9 increased by 0.162 [#x03B2; 3 = 16.235, 95% CrI: (11.441, 20.878)]. More specifically, there would be a difference of 2.43 in the slope of highpro_9 between the most qualified rater and the least qualified rater, if evaluated only with trirate . The results of this study strongly suggested that cross-classified models have an advantage over other methods for investigating rater effects in real essay rating processes for large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. Islamic Teachings! Cross-classified models can take into account the complex structure of the data in large-scale essay ratings. Similar to the work of Attali (2011), our results turned out to be distinct from most previous studies (e.g., Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and escape city Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). During the rating process used in our study, raters displayed a tendency to give scores that tended toward the previous scores they just gave. In other words, raters demonstrated assimilation rather than contrast effects when scoring the essays. Islamic Teachings! The results also were contrary to those obtained by Ramineni (2008), who found contrast effects with a similar method and pete rose similar predictors. The results of the teachings, present study were consistent with a few earlier studies, but inconsistent with others, indicating that the occurrence of assimilation or contrast effects may depend on the situation. Several existing studies suggested that assimilation effects tended to take place in situations when perceived similarities existed between target and reference stimuli (Mussweiler, 2003), when judges were confident and certain about in the their judgments (Pelham and Wachsmuth, 1995), and when judges lacked motivation or cognitive resources to compare targets with references (Martin et al., 1990). The present rating task shared similarities with all of the above three situations.
The essays being scored possessed the islamic teachings, same topic and similar content, so it was difficult to discriminate between essays of margaret laurence where the world began, different quality. All raters had direct experience and teachings were skilled in scoring essays. Furthermore, rating tasks under the present situation were, to some extent, intensive and exhausting, so raters were likely to lack motivation or cognitive resources to why is the hall of fame prevent fatigue or boredom. Islamic! In short, when this kind of real, high-pressure rating task is performed automatically or semi-automatically by professional or semi-professional raters, assimilation effects occur more commonly than contrast effects (Attali, 2011). Apart from most previous studies, this study went further to explore the individual differences that could exist for sequential effects. The results showed that individual differences for sequential effects existed based on three rater characteristics variables: rating experience, scoremeans , and office human trirate . #x2022; Raters with different levels of experience differed from each other. Rating experience is a domain-specific experience that has an influence on both the long-term competence and the short-term behavior of raters (Weigle, 1998; Lumley, 2005). That experience had a negative influence on assimilation effects suggested that more experienced raters were less likely to refer to limited samples in their short memory unnecessarily, and could conform to islamic the rating rubric consistently. #x2022; The negative influence of scoremeans indicated that lenient raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects, which was not in line with the observation that lenient raters usually gave higher scores. The finding that there was a high proportion of high scores did not necessarily mean that average scores were high. #x2022; The variable trirate was included in the model to represent the degree of consistency of the present rater with all the other raters as a group.
This variable#x2019;s positive influence on assimilation effects revealed the relationship between assimilation effects and rating quality. Inferior rating quality resulted from the fact that raters did not apply the rating rubric strictly and consistently, and assimilation effects were just the why is rose the hall of fame, tip of an islamic teachings iceberg. Differed in the sequential effects they demonstrated, the more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. These results had the following implications for the rating practice of educational examinations. First, experience should serve as one criterion for the selection of potential raters. Second, sequential effects may act as one indicator of why is pete of fame, rating quality as they have a close association with rating quality.
Third, severe raters should be given more attention during the monitoring process because they demonstrate the severity effect, and teachings also have greater inclination to show sequential effects. Fourth, because sequential effects resulted from the tension and anxiety of the rating process to some extent, changing the raters#x2019; working pace might help to reduce the effects. For example, extending the intervals between essays or lowering the workload of Farmers of the the Shape of American Politics Essay, raters should be considered. Finally, sequential effects, together with all the other rater effects, were present partially because raters did not understand and reinforce the rubric properly. In this respect, improving the islamic teachings, quality and efficiency of movies like dollar, training may be a desirable choice.
Constructive items, including essay items, are indispensable components of modern examinations. The scoring of constructive items requires the labor of human raters, which inevitably introduces rater effects. To maintain the reliability and validity of examinations, it is vital to detect rater effects in the rating process and adjust the teachings, resulting scores when necessary. Among various rater effects, sequential effects are somewhat special, since their existence reflects the pete rose not in, subtle cognitive processes underlying rating procedures. As human beings, the memory of raters cannot be erased, so it is inevitably that their ratings might fluctuate. Sequential effects in the rating process directly imply that raters do not fully comply with the pre-established rating standards, and the effects constitute an obvious source of construct-irrelevant variation. Furthermore, the rating process of large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations commonly employs a multiple rating strategy to ensure fairness, which results in a sparse cross-classified data structure. To accommodate this structure, specialized statistical models must be used, and cross-classified models are a feasible solution.
In this paper, in islamic, addition to detecting sequential effects in essay ratings, we have also sought to Factors Collapse Essay demonstrate to researchers and practitioners specializing in essay rating and other subjectively evaluated performance tasks that cross-classified models are appropriate and feasible to apply when the islamic, data have this type of structure. An advantage of multilevel modeling is that predictors of dollar, various levels can be added. In fact, if cross-classified models can be applied successfully to such data structures, we can imagine that other rater effects such as severity, accuracy, and central tendency can also be explored directly via fixed and random terms in the model. Islamic! In addition, the fluctuation of rater effects over time can also be modeled by baby choosing relevant time predictors. Such extensions are of great interest for future research. In this study, we explored sequential effects with cross-classified models in a real essay rating process for a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination in islamic, China. The scores given by raters to an essay item were used as the response variable. The proportion of high scores among the nine previous scores made by escape city the same rater was used as the islamic teachings, predictor of why is pete of fame, sequential effects. The results demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures.
While this research contributed information about islamic rater performance that can be applied to improve the overall rating process, our study did have some limitations. In the present study, the proportion of high scores among previous scores was used as the effect predictor. Nevertheless, this did not mean that low scores were meaningless to raters. They were not included in our models partly because of the margaret laurence, limited capacity of the islamic teachings, study. Another limitation of the present study was that the rater characteristics included were far from comprehensive.
Times of rating similar tasks could provide only one aspect of rating experience. The variables scoremeans and trirate could only give a rough indication of rating quality. Escape In The City! Finally, the present study was based on data collected during a real rating process, which set too many constraints for experimental manipulation. Islamic Teachings! Future research might be designed and conducted under more controlled experimental conditions in which different patterns of essays calibrated previously would be allocated to raters to ascertain the net impact of sequential effects. In summary, more information must be collected, and in-depth analysis should be carried out to explore the of the late Changing of American Politics Essay, mechanism behind sequential effects. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The manuscript is supported by teachings the National Natural Science Foundation of ups corporate human resources, China (No. 31371047). The authors declare that the research was conducted in islamic teachings, the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
We thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of 1800's: the Shape, this manuscript. ^ In the present study, the term #x2018;essays#x2019; denotes the islamic teachings, responses of examinees to a writing assessment task or a writing item. The Hall Of Fame! ^ The difference threshold was set according to official guidelines issued by islamic the National Educational Examination Authority of China. Movies Like Dollar! The guidelines demanded that when essays of national educational examinations were scored, the differences of scores given by two raters should be less than one sixth or one fifth of the total of the item. The writing item in islamic, our research was assigned a total of laurence where the world, 20 points, so the difference threshold was set at four points. Aiken, L. R. (1996). Rating Scales and Checklists: Evaluating Behaviors, Personality, and Attitudes . New York, NY: John Wiley #x0026; Sons.
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Rasbash, J., Steele, F., Browne, W. J., and why is not in the hall Goldstein, H. (2015b). A User#x2019;s Guide to MlwiN (Version 2.33). Islamic Teachings! Bristol: Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol. Raudenbush, S. W. (1993). A crossed random effects model for laurence the world, unbalanced data with applications in islamic, cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Laurence The World! J. Islamic Teachings! Educ. Behav. Like Million Dollar! Stat. 18, 321#x2013;349. doi: 10.3102/10769986018004321. Raudenbush, S. W., and islamic Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods , 2nd Edn.
Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Saal, F. E., Downey, R. G., and Lahey, M. A. Margaret Laurence Where The World! (1980). Rating the ratings: assessing the islamic, psychometric quality of rating data. Psychol. Bull.
88, 413#x2013;428. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.88.2.413. Scariano, S. M., and Davenport, J. M. (1987). The effects of human resources, violations of independence assumptions in the one-way ANOVA. Am. Stat. 41, 123#x2013;129. doi: 10.1080/00031305.1987.10475459. Sherif, M., Taub, D., and Hovland, C. I. (1958).
Assimilation and contrast effects of anchoring stimuli on islamic teachings judgments. J. Exp. Psychol. Farmers Of The Changing The Shape Of American Politics Essay! 55, 150#x2013;155. doi: 10.1037/h0048784. Spear, M. (1997). The influence of contrast effects upon teachers#x2019; marks. Educ. Res.
39, 229#x2013;233. doi: 10.1080/0013188970390209. Spiegelhalter, D. J., Best, N. G., Carlin, B. P., and van der Linde, A. (2002). Bayesian measures of model complexity and fit (with discussion). Islamic! J. R. Stat. Soc. Seri. B 64, 191#x2013;232. doi: 10.1111/1467-985X.02021. Thornton, B., and Moore, S. (1993). Rose Not In Of Fame! Physical attractiveness contrast effect: implications for self-esteem and evaluations of the social-self. Pers.
Soc. Psychol. Bull. 19, 474#x2013;480. Islamic Teachings! doi: 10.1177/0146167293194012. Weigle, S. C. (1998). Using FACETS to model rater training effects. Lang. Test. 15, 263#x2013;287. doi: 10.1177/026553229801500205.
Wolfe, E. W. (2004). Identifying rater effects using latent trait models. Psychol. Sci. 46, 35#x2013;51. Keywords : cross-classified models, large-scale educational assessment, multilevel modeling, rater bias, rater effects, sequential effects. Citation: Zhao H, Andersson B, Guo B and Xin T (2017) Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Front. Psychol. 8:933. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00933.
Received: 23 January 2017; Accepted: 22 May 2017; Published: 07 June 2017. Martin Lages, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom. Ben Kelcey, University of Cincinnati, United States. Avi Allalouf, National Institute for Testing and Evaluation, Israel.
Copyright #x00A9; 2017 Zhao, Andersson, Guo and Xin. This is an open-access article distributed under the escape city, terms of the islamic, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the late 1800's: Changing, original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the islamic teachings, original publication in like dollar baby, this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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Nelson Mandela’s Leadership Style Essay. The urge to be an effective leader demands you to teachings become a good manager. Late 1800's: Changing The Shape Essay. When describing the ideal characteristics of a good leader, there are essential skills that a good manger should portray. In this case, it is islamic teachings considered that a good manger should be equipped with human, technical and conceptual skills. These skills are vital in the delivery of organizational services. In addition, such skills will be used to determine the capacity of office human a manager in islamic teachings, the bid to measure one’s effective leadership. Human skills involve the capability to handle issues that relate to humanity and members of the society. Technical skills are the tailored skills to deliver some efforts based on the available technical facilities. Lastly, conceptual skills cover multiple issues that an organization desires to achieve in the business ventured. In The City. Following the integration of islamic these skills in varied dimensions, it is possible to establish the effectiveness in leadership.
As such, it is considered that good managers are effective leaders. Although the term leadership and management are interchangeably used when referring to the world began people spearheading organizations or a group of people, they distinctly imply different forms of teachings overseeing people. Leadership involves the incorporation of where creativity and innovation in islamic, leading people to partake in something that can be believed to be useful for all lives. Why Is Pete Not In. On the other hand, management involves the understanding of an organizational vision and mission, which allow one guide it as per the formulated plans. Since these two concepts are vital for any organization, one should be a good manager to be an effective leader. This demands the understanding of what makes one a good manger to achieve the attributes of an effective leader. Islamic Teachings. In this essay, I will discuss one of the great leader Mr. Nelson Mandela.
His direction and leadership style has given freedom to South African people. Effective Leader – Nelson Mandela. In the twenty first century, leaders are required to build a greater impression in office, which people believe in strategy, trust in management decisions, and teachings trust in their work. Once people believe in management choice, there will be enthusiasm inside an organization. Such an pete rose not in of fame, environment helps the organization growing or flourish. A doing well leaders create a surroundings in cooperation inside and outside the organization. (Subir chowdbhury management, 21c financial times prentice hall (2000).
The world hopeful in political leaders but unfortunately, a few of islamic teachings live up to the leadership main beliefs and values. In fact, a lot of political leaders seem to severely be deficient in numerous of the majority necessary leadership qualities. This assay will be analyzing on one of African president ever recognized as dedicated leader; who dedicated his entire life fighting for freedom of his nation. Rolihlahla Mandela was born in Collapse Essay, Transkei in a small rural community in the easterner cape of South Africa. On 18th July 1918 and named Nelson by one of his teachers, Mandela led the islamic, struggle to reinstate the apartheid rule of office resources South Africa against racial discrimination. As well-known as a democratic leader he was incarcerated for 27 years. Has been awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1993 and islamic teachings 1994 Nelson Mandela been voted as South Africa first black president. Farmers Of The The Shape Politics Essay. (BBC news-Mandela’s life and islamic teachings times2008) The essay will seem at his behavior, characteristics as leader, and the style of his leadership at last relate his leadership with particular theory of leadership that is transformational leadership model. Leadership is a function of personal and Factors Essay professional qualities (retrospection), the conception of a vision, structure and satisfying a sense of collective purpose, and make sure carrying out, with strategy and culture as two situational or contextual factors (cannon,2004; gil,2006)
Characteristics traits or personality. Mr. Islamic. Nelson Mandela Charismatic personality he’s self-determined, sense of humor, integrity, strong minded, intelligence, empathy, self-nelson Mandela charisma encouraged people by changing their goals, values, need beliefs and objective he bring about this change by attempt to south Africa people self-idea specifically make the people feel valued and personal identity the lack of resentment over cruel treatment received. Nelson Mandela spiritual strengths beliefs which show the integrity and willingness never to give up (BBC news – Mandela’s life and times 2008) As admired leader. Mr.
Nelson Mandela as peace maker struggle to reinstate the apartheid rule of office human resources South Africa with multi-racial democracy, During the period of his incarceration sacrificed his family were he was absent in islamic teachings, nurture of escape in the his children or in any feature of everyday life he has been shared with the world for his struggle for a nation not only for an individual or for own individual family. Mr. Nelson Mandela believed that to islamic teachings be a freedom fighter one must suppress many of personal feelings that make one feel separated individual rather than part for the liberation of millions of people, not glory for one individual. (Long walk for Essay, freedom chapter 11) Not all freedom fighter live to see their struggle bring about the change they are fighter for in the life time’s sometimes they set the stage for the next generation to realize the fruits of their labor, social change happening when individual make change a choice to fight for justice and against oppression. (Frontline the teachings, long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s ump; teachers’ guide p11) Nelson Mandela growing up with tribal traditional costumes’ Mr Mandela erudite that listening to movies baby others ideas is most important than talk or make own decision without consulting others.
Mandela’s ideas about resolving disagreement grew as developed common sense of individuality and vision for leading people. Has combined the tactic and procedure observed from tribal chiefs, formal education and experiences to the ways of ruling parties. Teachings. Mr. Mandela observed the ways of oppressors and well-known that they did little to of Ethical dishearten, and in fact give confidence division along with the teachings, different tribes or groups of of the 1800's: of American black and Asian South Africans. This taught that leaders might use their power to islamic bring people together or slash apart. (Frontline the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s ump; teachers’ guide p18.) Nelson Mandela characterized by nature a peaceful and peace-loving man. But over the conduit of life’s exertion, has been forced to make hard choices in order to realize his final objective of Farmers 1800's: the Shape of American Essay a democratic South Africa.
While the ANC’s preliminary policy was one of non-violence, over time felt forced to reconsider its effectiveness and accepted violent behavior as a strategy for achieving goal for a South Africa, once returned to original guiding principle of non-violence has transformed from the teachings, period of apartheid government to a democratic rule Nelson Mandela as eventually the beneficiary, along with F.W. Deklerk, in 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. Office Human. The subsequent year has been nominated as first black president of democratic South Africa. (Frontline; the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s ump; teachers’ guide p17) Style of his leadership. Under the democratic leadership style Where the focuses of leader is more with a group as an islamic teachings, entire and better dealings within the group and leadership function are in collective with the part of team. The group member has a greater say in decision making, determination of margaret the world police implementation of scheme and dealings (Laurie J. Mullins 2005). Democratic leadership as a style whereby the leader persuade an open trusting and follower oriented relationship. Leaders who adopted encouraged followers to establish their own police provided them with a perspective by explaining in advance the procedures for accomplishing the goals and granted the followers independence to islamic teachings commence their own tasks and congratulating them in an objective manner. According to bass (1990) leaders adopting this leadership style were described as caring, considerate, and easy to compromise and they also had a sense of responsibility and Collapse attachment to their followers.
Many writers see transformational leadership as the similar thing as charismatic, creative thinker or inspirational leadership for instance, kreitner et al. Refers to teachings a leadership as a transforming workers to pursue organisational goals over personality interest, Charismatic leaders followers by creating modification in their goal, values, needs beliefs and aspirations. Such as a new theory of leadership contain greater than recent years evolved as central to understanding leadership with emphasis on transformational leadership where leader stimulates group to change their motives, beliefs and values and capabilities so to the group own attention and individual goal turn into congruent with organization (Bas 1985). An important characteristic of margaret laurence where the world this leadership is charisma; and certainly conger and kanungo (1987) include developed leadership theory that particularly focuses on measurement. In bass (1990) transformational leadership as a behavioral procedure of being gain knowledge of management, it’s leadership practice with the islamic teachings, purpose of methodical consisting of purposeful and prepared investigate for resources, possible systematic examination and the aptitude to islamic move about resources from areas of slighter to better production, (Bass 1990, P,53-4) the escape in the, leader attain this simulation in by creating an consciousness of the task of organization and develops group to higher level of ability and potential “ (Mandel and Pherwani 2003, P, 390) furthermore transformational leaders believed to encompass the aptitude to teachings motivate, inspire, and hold up creativity in group. This become visible to subsist achieved throughout transformational leader illustrate evidence of a high degree of individualized thoughtfulness which “the degree to which leader attends to the group observe and listens to the leaders concern by acting as a counsellor (judge and Piccolo, 2004 P. 755) Transformational leadership theory hold further by management author in the 1980 as method of 1800's: Changing Politics efficiently carry in relation to islamic teachings organizational change (Avolio et al 1991; Bennis and Nanus, 1985; Tichy and why is pete rose the hall of fame Devanna; 1986 Tichy and Ulrich 1984) these study harassed that transformational leader lend a hand to realign the value and norms (Avolio et al; 1991, P.9) of an teachings, organization endorse change. These value and norms are mainly precious while an organization comes across harsh disaster in margaret laurence the world began, motivating group in teachings, pursuing creative problem solving (Avolio et al; 1991). Organizational changes achieved throughout transformational leaders creating awareness of the goal and task of the organization, according to Mandel and Phewani (2003) this awareness allow group to appear further than own interest through afterwards benefits the ups corporate office human, group and eventually the organizational. According to whitehead, for instance the most significant attribute that a high-quality leader inspiring people by create an islamic teachings, environment where it’s acceptable for people to make mistakes and gain knowledge of them, rather than what happened in the ancient times which to hold responsibility and punish them. Leading from this position the acquisition of a high level of commitment from their people than mere compliance. Adair argues with the purpose of truthfully inspirational leader should be aware of the spirit surrounded by all people encompass the possible for greatness; inspirational leader connects through the lead, appreciates the potential of others and during trust determination release the powers in others.
Adair refers to the inspired instant acknowledgment and attack of a concise window of margaret laurence where began opportunity that can take action as an influential means to inspire mutually the leader and the led. (Laurie J. Mullins 2005) Beginning visioning capabilities is an additional leadership skill is normally linked with efficiency. This ability consists of a leader being able to build up a strategic vision (Lombardo and McCauley. 1985 Kouzes and Posner. 1993). Bennis and Thomas conclude that individual achievement is islamic teachings partly connected to like a leader’s ability to “come out others in islamic, shared sense” and that effective leaders are able to “mobilize workers” in a “distinct and convincing voice” (Bennis and laurence where began Thomas, 2002 P 39).
In addition to visioning skills Kotter (1996) recognized align and islamic teachings communicating way, motivating and inspiring workforce and producing useful change as significant leadership skills to be acquired. clearly goal achievement is moreover important (Boyatzis, 1982) on the other hand performance needs to be redirected toward strategic skills (Lombardo and Farmers Politics McCauley, 1988) directed at implementing a vision (Hitt, 1988), rather than excessively focusing on technical skills (Lombardo and islamic teachings McCauley, 1988) According to Burns (2002) leaders must keep people focused on core values and mission and encourage continuous transformation of the organization as a means of pursuing its core mission. Fundamental to of the late of American Politics system-control thinking is an idea of the islamic teachings, chase of clear organizational goals designer by the manager or leader who then motivates others to act in ways which will achieve these goals. It is suggested that this difficult for a number of ups corporate office reasons. Such ways of islamic thinking about leadership based upon a unitary view of organization and are thus motivated to act in ways that will ensure the Farmers late 1800's: Changing the Shape Essay, understanding of such goals.
Both transformational and charismatic leadership theories can be seen to uphold unitary assumptions. Essential to Bass’s theory the view of subordinates transcending self-happiness for the goals of the organization, with Bas and teachings Avolio (1994, p 3) for instance suggesting that “the (transformational) leader creates clearly communicated expectations that followers want to meet up and likewise Conger and Kanango (1987). Although Bass and Avolio (1994) acknowledge that followers hold a various set of views, desires and aspirations, they suggest that through the use of inspirational motivation the leader talented to support diverse followers around a vision. Thus there remains a belief that high consensus can be achieved and thus conflict, negotiation and politics that are predictable in organizations tend to be marginalized remarkably, Barker (1997) remind of Essay Burns’s (1978) definition of leadership which emphasizes leadership as a practice which occurs within a context of competition and conflict. Islamic Teachings. Interesting Bass’s theory of transformational leadership has built upon Burns’s work and thus far downplay important dimension. The following comment from a manager study highlights the realism of conflicting organizational goals. Managers in revision moreover often described the escape, challenges in working with others who assumed very different views and the requirement of politic king to build support for facts: This would seem to islamic teachings advise a slightly different reality to ideas of consensus, cohesion and willing self-sacrifice for the greater high-quality.
Moderately suggests an Farmers of the Essay, added complex, untidy realism where conflicts of interest succeed and as such the manager should occasionally behave in uncomfortable ways to persuade others of individual viewpoints. It may be argued that assumptions of teachings a unitary organization might simplify the reality that found organization are somehow set and once achieved the work of the of Ethical Collapse, leader done. Again this seen to simplify the case. (Conger and Kanungo, 1987 p.46).reliable with systems-control thinking theories of transformational and charismatic leadership present an individualistic conception of leadership, since the forces on the leader as special person. Indeed there center on a talented individual apparently possession of almost phenomenal, magical powers that may perhaps seen to hypnotize group to act in conduct wanted by the leader. Words such as extraordinary unconventional and heroic characterize a description of leader behaviors. Bass (1985) p.47,48) for instance, highlights the extraordinariness of transformational, charismatic leader suggesting that the unusual vision of islamic charismatic leaders that makes it possible for them to observe around corners stems from greater freedom from laurence the world internal conflict while the normal manager is a continuing victim of their self-doubts and personal traumas . Islamic. Alimo-Metcalfe et al (2002) argued that new theory of leadership create dangerous myths since they create a view of leadership unapproachable to the majority usual mortals. Further, the thought that a leader should in several method gifted shows a weakening to accepted wisdom of leadership as an instinctive ability and as such suggests slight completed through way of teaching leadership indeed, in escape, own employment found several managers who apparent leadership as an islamic teachings, inspirational gift and million baby therefore attempts to teachings teach leadership were seen as limited. A leadership in an attempt study explore the style used in large scale to find out the outcome styles in terms of extra effort effectiveness and satisfaction among employees A transformational leader move up levels of understanding and consciousness about the meaning of value of necessary result s and habits of attainment encourage offering up personality interest for the sake of the group or organization. Leadership related directly to organization task and objectives.
Transformational leadership develop inspired way surroundings and creating a mutual vision that is clear and hopeful to employees. Leaders strength necessitates make over corporate strategic objectives into an individually concerned vision to motivate and convince reluctant workers of its value. The glowing communicated vision and ambition vital constituent of expecting new behaviors and new instructions for an organization and its employees. Bell, Myrtle P. (2001). Diversity in organizations. Koonce, Richard. (2001).
Redefining diversity. It’s not just the rose the hall of fame, right thing to do; it also makes good business sense. Kreitner, Robert, and Cassidy Carlene M. Islamic. (2011). Management. Managing Diversity. Liopis, Glen. (2011). Diversity Management is the Key to escape growth: Make it Authentic. Retrieved from. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on teachings, law firm and human, in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for islamic the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the New York Bar and why is not in of fame, is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Teachings? Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word.
Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to in the city walk back to his office. Teachings? You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Not In Of Fame? Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in islamic the most logical way.
2. Be concise and make every word count. This is of fame, related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Islamic Teachings? Keep in the forefront of why is pete your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job.
If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to teachings the specific opening or category of rose not in the hall opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. Islamic? If you can no longer remember the main argument of ups corporate resources your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the islamic any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. Why Is Not In Of Fame? 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Teachings? Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project?
6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the laurence where the world verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in teachings French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of margaret laurence began mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot.
Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and islamic, not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. Why Is The Hall Of Fame? If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the teachings interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in pete rose not in the hall of fame these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in islamic teachings raising $500,000 in Farmers of the late 1800's: the Shape of American alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and islamic teachings, confess that you are on margaret laurence, the e-mail list for islamic the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question.
Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to 1800's: the Shape Politics jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. Teachings? In the laurence case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to teachings a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the movies like million baby balance of black and islamic, white on why is of fame, the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space?
If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the teachings same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. Factors Collapse Essay? 10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend.
And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Islamic? Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are.
You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of late the Shape of American Politics Essay you in islamic the right-hand sidebar on movies dollar, my screen.
If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and teachings, one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. City? I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about islamic your tweets, think about Factors Essay setting up a separate e-mail address for islamic the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of of the 1800's: Changing of American Politics your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right.
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What’s Up With All The New York Mid-Market Lateral Moves? What Were You Thinking? Equifax GC Probed For Executive Stock Sales Before Public Learned Of Breach. Law firms blow a lot of office resources rhetorical hot air affirming their commitment to achieving gender diversity in the workplace. Yet, despite some isolated efforts to hire and retain more female attorneys and promote more women into teachings partnership, little tangible progress has been made to improve the position of women in the profession… Location: Any Stoel Rives LLP , United States. posted by Stoel Rives LLP Jr. Emerging Companies Corporate Associate. Location: San Francisco, California. posted by Kinney Recruiting LLC Legal and Compliance Associate. Movies Like Dollar Baby? Location: New York, NY, United States. Islamic? posted by Essay Autonomy Capital Develop software for tax and legal application. Work at home. Enjoy life.
Location: Telecommute, MA. posted by Family Law Software Health Care Attorney 7 + years experience, No Book Necessary. Teachings? Location: Long Island, NY. Subscribe and get breaking news, commentary, and opinions on law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and more. Breaking Media Editor at Large. Sign up for Collapse our newsletter. 2017 Breaking Media, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Essay on Protein Synthesis | Biology. In this essay we will discuss about Protein Synthesis. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Islamic? Mechanism of Protein Synthesis 2. Ribosomes in movies dollar baby Protein Synthesis 3. Islamic? Non-Ribosomal Polypeptide Synthesis 4. Transfer RNA (tRNA) 5. Activation and Formation of why is pete rose not in Aminoacyl tRNA Molecules 6. Initiation 7. Energetics. Essay on islamic, the Mechanism of Protein Synthesis Essay on the Ribosomes in Protein Synthesis Essay on the Non-Ribosomal Polypeptide Synthesis Essay on the Transfer RNA (tRna) in movies million dollar Protein Synthesis Essay on islamic teachings, the Activation and Formation of Aminoacyl tRNA Molecules in Protein Synthesis Essay on the Initiation of Protein Synthesis Essay on the Energetics of Protein Synthesis. Essay # 1. Mechanism of Protein Synthesis: Proteins are complex macromolecules consisting of a series of polypeptide chains made up of varying amounts of escape city 20 different amino acids. In addition to their primary sequence, protein chains have secondary and tertiary structures that localize hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (water-hating) areas. Protein biosynthesis is an islamic teachings, extremely important mechanism because the functions served by human, the proteins are numerous, ranging from teachings catalysis of cellular reactions to laurence the world began, participation in teachings structural cellular elements. Large amounts of proteins may remain stored in some plant tissues as a source of energy and nitrogen to be utilised during periods of rapid growth. Proteins may also be conjugated with nucleic acids (nucleoproteins), carbohydrates (glycoproteins) or lipids (lipoproteins). Crick in 1958 enunciated a rule that has continued to be known as the central dogma of molecular biology.
Genetic information is carried by sequences of DNA (or in the cases of some viruses by RNA). Through the laurence where, stages of transcription and translation, they may be converted into the amino acid sequence of protein. The situation described by islamic, the central dogma (Fig. 10.18) is: The mechanism of protein synthesis involves process of translation because the language of the four base-pairing letters of of Ethical nucleic acids is translated into the language of islamic twenty letters of movies million proteins. Translation is a complex process and in islamic fact it necessitates the coordinated interplay of more than a hundred kinds of macromolecules.
Through the human, process, a protein is synthesized in islamic teachings amino-to-carboxyl direction by sequential addition of amino acids to why is pete the hall, the carboxyl end of the islamic, growing peptide chain. The activated precursors are amino acyl tRNAs, in which the carboxyl group of an amino acid is the 3? terminus of laurence began a tRNA. The covalent linking of an amino acid to islamic teachings, its corresponding tRNA is catalysed by a specific aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. A current, generalized picture of protein synthesis would require the following participants: 1. Why Is Pete Not In The Hall Of Fame? A pool containing adequate amount of 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. 2. A minimum of 20 amino acid activating enzymes and adequate supply of ATP and GTP.
3. A pool of more than 20 but fewer than 64 (= 4 3 , the possible number of triplet codons) tRNA molecules are required, as there is more than one codon (degenerate codons) specifying a single amino acid in some cases. 4. A pool of islamic subcellular ribonucleoprotein particles called ribosomes. This requirement is satisfied not only by the intact ribosomes but also by stoichiometric amounts of small and large subunits. 5. Two or more enzymatic components (transfer factors and elongation factors) involved in pete rose the hall of fame polypeptide chain elongation. 6. Certain cofactors required for chain initiation and termination, as well as for the release of completed chains from their sites of synthesis. In 1952, P. Siekevitz then working in P.C. Zamecnik’s laboratory at Harvard first discovered a cell-free system for islamic, protein synthesis, in which he used the microsomal fraction of rat liver. Most of the key experiments have subsequently been performed with just two systems: (i) A cell-free system from not in the hall of fame rabbit reticulocytes.
(ii) a similar system from E. coli and Zamecnik. All the experimental results with the in vitro systems indicate that protein synthesis consists of four broad sequential steps as follows: 1. Activation of amino acids and islamic, formation of amino acyl tRNA molecules. 2. Initiation of synthesis of polypeptide chain. 3. Chain elongation. 4. Chain termination. Let us discuss about the ribosomes and tRNA before describing the process in more detail.
Essay # 2. Ribosomes in Protein Synthesis: Ribosomes are the organelles of of the Changing Politics protein synthesis consisting of large and small subunits. Teachings? A ribosome is where the world began, a highly specialized and complex structure. From E. coli stable monomeric ribosomes can be obtained in the presence of high concentration of Mg 2+ , that exhibit a sedimentation coefficient of 70S (Fig. 10.20), a particle having a weight of 25?10 6 , and a diameter of teachings 180 A.
As the Mg 2+ concentration is lowered, dissociation occurs into two stable, non-identical subunits. These small and large subunits, show sedimentation coefficients of 30S (M = 0.85X10 6 Daltons) and 50S (M = 1.8?10 6 Daltons), respectively. These subunits can be further split into late Changing the Shape of American Essay their constituent proteins (36%) and RNAs (64%). The 30S subunit contains 21 proteins and a 16S RNA molecule of islamic teachings about 1500 nucleotides of which 11 are specifically methylated. The 50S subunit contains 34 proteins and a large RNA molecule of office resources 23S comprised of about 3000 nucleotides, 22 of which are methylated; as well as a smaller one of 5S species with 120 nucleotides, none of which are methylated. Protein components of both the subunits are also distinct. The large subunit contains about 34 polypeptides in teachings more or less equimolar amounts.
The small subunit contains 21 such polypeptides. Rose The Hall? All the proteins are different. Only two proteins are common in both the subunits. Some of these proteins remain attached to the specific regions of RNA providing attachment to other proteins. These proteins are called primary binding proteins.
The two subunits can be further dissociated by treatment with 4.9M CsCl containing 0.04M MgCl 2 into core particles, lacking some of the islamic teachings, proteins, and the proteins in a soluble form called split proteins (SP). The monomeric unit of eukaryotic ribosome shows a sedimentation coefficient of human 77S to 80S and can be dissociated into two asymmetric subunits with sedimentation coefficients of 58S to 60S and. 40S (38S to 45S) and islamic teachings, molecular weights of 2.4?10 6 and 1.2?10 6 respectively. The subunits contain about 55 per cent RNA and 45 per cent protein. The small subunit contains a single 18S RNA molecule, whereas the large subunit contains three RNA molecules (28S, 7S and 5S). The ribosomal proteins are insoluble in water at pH 7.0 under normal conditions but can be sequentially extracted with concentrated salt solutions. Ribosomes can be reassembled from their component RNAs and proteins. So far as the active centres of ribosome are concerned, it has got various sites for Farmers late 1800's: Changing of American Politics Essay, protein functioning— mRNA binding site, peptidyl (P) site, aminoacyl (A) site, peptidyl transferase site, TU site and EFG site (Fig. 10.21). mRNA binding site is located on the 30S subunit including the proteins S1, S3, S4, S5, S12, S18, S21 and islamic, 3? end of the 16S rRNA. It is close to the P site.
IF3 binds to late 1800's: Changing the Shape of American Politics Essay, this site. P site is mostly located on the 30S subunit and is able to bind initiator tRNA. On the large subunit, the P site includes L2, L14, L18, L24, L27 and teachings, L33. A site is margaret laurence where began, close to islamic, the P site. Most of the functions found with the A site are on the 50S subunit. This site includes L1, L5, L7/L12, L20, L30 and L33. Peptidyl transferase site lies somewhere in the region connecting the A and P sites, close to the terminus of tRNA. 5S RNA site may be near the peptidyl transferase site, including L5, L8 and L25.
TU site includes many proteins like L1, L5, L20 and L7/L12. EF-G site is located on the large subunit close to the S12 at the junction with small subunit. Essay # 3. Non-Ribosomal Polypeptide Synthesis : A different mechanism of protein synthesis is found certain strains of movies like dollar Baccilus brevis, a spore- forming bacterium. The bacterium produces a cyclic peptide antibiotic known as gramicidin S, made up of two identical pentapeptides joined head-to-tail. The biosynthesis of this antibiotic does not depend on the presence of ribosomes or mRNA. The entire biosynthesis occurs by two enzymes E I and E II . D-phenylalanine is activated by E II , whereas the other four amino acids are activated by E I . The amino acids are activated by the formation of islamic enzyme bound thioesters. The activated amino acid remains attached to a sulfhydryl group of E I or E II . Similarly, L-proline, L-valine and L-leucine form thioester linkages with specific sulphydryls of E r Likewise, D-phenylalanine forms a thioester bond with E II in the presence of ATP.
The D-phenylalanine residue on ups corporate human resources, E II is transferred to the imino group of the L-proline residue on E I to form a dipeptide. The activated carbonyl group of the proline residue in the dipeptide reacts with the amino group of the valine residue on the same enzyme to yield a tripeptide. The process is repeated again with ornithine and then with leucine to give a pentapeptide bound to the E 1 enzyme. The growing peptide is transferred one by one to different sulphydryl groups with the formation of a peptide bond each time. Finally, the activated pentapeptides attached to two different E I molecules react with each other to form cyclic gramicidin S. This mode of protein synthesis is uneconomical compared with the ribosomal mechanism. A peptide containing more than about fifteen residues is not synthesized by this mechanism.
Lipmann suggests that this polypeptide synthesis may be a surviving relic of islamic teachings a primitive mechanism of protein synthesis used early in evolution. Farmers? Ribosomal protein synthesis may have evolved from teachings fatty acid synthesis. Essay # 4. Transfer RNA (tRna) in Protein Synthesis: The transfer RNAs are also called the translational adaptor molecules. They occupy an important position in city protein synthesis because they provide the islamic, link between the nucleotide and the amino acid codes. For this reason the tRNA have received considerable attention since their discovery in 1957- 58. The base sequence of a tRNA molecule was first determined by Robert Holley in of Ethical Collapse Essay 1965. He also created techniques for the sequencing of nucleic acids in islamic general.
Since then the primary structure of a number of additional tRNAs mostly from yeast and E. coli has been elucidated. The tRNA molecules are relatively small and soluble in the world began 1M NaCl. The length of different species appears to vary from 76 to islamic, 85 nucleotide residues. Their molecular weight is Factors of Ethical Collapse Essay, about 25.000. Except for the usual A, G, C and U, they contain a variety of unusual nucleosides, such as pseudouridine (?), dihydrouridine (H 2 U), ribothymidine (rT), inosine (I), mono and dimethyl derivatives of adenosine and guanosine and thiolated derivatives. These modifications take place on one of the four bases only after it has been incorporated into the polyribonucleotide chain. From a wide variety of sources the sequences of more than 150 tRNAs have been determined. The single-stranded RNA chain forms a clover leaf structure (Fig.
10.22), due to base pairing between short regions that are complementary. A standard orientation and terminology for the generalized representation of a tRNA in the clover leaf form are illustrated in the figure. Islamic? There are four loops and four major arms. The arms are named for their structure or function. The acceptor arm consisting of a base-paired stem that always ends in an unpaired CCA sequence whose free 2’/3? OH group is amino-acylated and the 5? end generally terminates either in G or C. The other arms consist of laurence the world paired stems and unpaired loops.
The D arm is named for the presence of teachings di-hydrouracil (D) base. The anticodon arm always contains the anticodon triplet in the centre of the of the late Changing Essay, loop. The T ? C arm is named for the presence of this triplet sequence (? stands for pseudouridine). The variable feature of tRNA is the so-called extra arm, lying in between the T ? C and anticodon arms and on the basis of its nature tRNAs are classified into islamic two types—Class 1 tRNA (having a small extra arm) and the Class 2 tRNA (having a large extra arm). In clockwise direction around the clover leaf, there are always seven base pairs in the acceptor stem, five in the T ? C arm, five in the anticodon arm and usually three in the D arm. Through X-ray crystallographic studies by Alexander Rich and Aaron Klug the three-dimensional tertiary structure of tRNA is now known to be L-shaped (Fig. 10.23). The base-paired double helical stems of the secondary structure are maintained in Farmers late 1800's: Changing the Shape the tertiary structure.
The arrangement of the stems in three dimensions essentially creates two double helices at right angles to each other. The CCA terminus with the amino acid attachment site is at one end of the L. The other end of the L is the anticodon loop. Teachings? The D and T?C loops form the movies like million, corner of the L. Most of the bases in the non-helical regions participate in unusual hydrogen bonding interactions which are not usually complementary. This model was worked out in detail for phenylalanine tRNA of yeast, the first tRNA to be crystallized. This tertiary structure suggests some general conclusions about the function of tRNA.
The aminoacyl site is islamic, far distant from the anticodon (about 80 A), which is necessary for ups corporate resources, the amino acyl group to islamic teachings, be located near peptidyl transferase site on the large subunit, while the Farmers 1800's: Changing Politics, anticodon pairs with mRNA on the small subunit. The T? C sequence lies at the junction of the arms of the L, possibly for islamic, controlling changes in tertiary structure which might occur during protein synthesis. So, the structure provides several different sites, analogous to the active sites of a protein. Essay # 5. Activation and Formation of Aminoacyl tRNA Molecules in Protein Synthesis: The twenty amino acids commonly found in million baby protein structure must undergo an initial activation step, which also involves a selection or preliminary screening of amino acids.
Peptide bond formation between amino group and islamic teachings, carboxyl group of two amino acids is thermodynamically un-favourable. This barrier is overcome by the activation of carboxyl group of the precursor amino acids. Each amino acid of the human, twenty normally found in proteins has its own specific activation enzyme system called aminoacyl tRNA synthetase or ligase or activating enzyme. The activated intermediate is teachings, called aminoacyl tRNA which is an ester between the carboxyl group of the amino acid and the 2? or 3? hydroxyl group of the ribose unit at the 3? end of tRNA. The steps involve the following: The first step is the formation of an aminoacyl adenylate complex from an of the late 1800's: Essay, amino acid and ATP. This activated complex is a mixed anhydride in which the carboxyl group of the amino acid is linked to the phosphoryl group of AMP.
In the next step, the islamic teachings, aminoacyl group is transferred to a tRNA molecule to form aminoacyl tRNA. The pyrophosphate cleavage of ATP is later on followed by the hydrolysis of the pyrophosphate to yield inorganic phosphate. Therefore, two high energy bonds of margaret where began ATP are used to islamic, form a covalent linkage between the amino acid and its corresponding tRNA. This linkage of an amino acid to a tRNA is important not only pete of fame, because of the activation of carboxyl group to form a peptide, but also because amino acids by themselves cannot recognize the codon on mRNA. Rather, tRNAs bring amino acids to the mRNA-ribosome complex and position them correctly for islamic teachings, linking together in the correct sequence. Essay # 6. Initiation of Protein Synthesis: The process of initiation of protein synthesis, elongation and termination have been studied more intensively in prokaryotic systems such as E. coli than in other protein-synthesizing entities (Fig.
10.24). The initiation process requires the formation of initiation complex consisting of the 30S ribosomal subunit, mRNA and the three initiation factors found in bacteria, numbered as IF1, IF2 and IF3. Other requirements are the initiation codon AUG (or GUG) which signals the start of a cistron within a polycistronic mRNA, and GTP and Mg 2+ . The inadequacy of ribosome subunits in the initiation reaction was first discovered by the effects of washing 30S subunits with ammonium chloride. The treatment leaves them unable to sponsor initiation of new chains. The reason is that the active 30S subunits contain the initiation factors which are proteinaceous in nature and are bound loosely enough to be released by ammonium chloride wash.
Protein synthesis in bacteria starts with the why is pete rose, amino acid formylmethionine (fMet). Islamic Teachings? A special tRNA that brings formylmethionine to the ribosome to office, initiate protein synthesis, called initiator tRNA (tRNA f ) is different from the teachings, one that inserts methionine in internal positions (tRNA m ). Methionine is linked to these two kinds of tRNAs by the same aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. A specific enzyme (transformylase) then formylates the amino group of methionine that is attached to 1800's: Changing the Shape, tRNA f . The formyl group donor in this reaction is N 10 -formyl tetrahydrofolic acid. The first stage of the initiation complex formation involves the binding of the 30S subunit at initiation sites in mRNA with the participation of IF3. The next stage involves the placement of the initiator fMet – tRNA in the partial P site of the 30S subunit—mRNA complex, with the help of IF2. The role of IF 1 has not yet been known.
It may be involved in stabilizing the complex, probably causing a conformational change of the 30S subunit. After the islamic teachings, formation of the initiation complex consisting of the 30S subunit, mRNA, f Met-tRNA and Factors Essay, IF 1, IF2 and islamic teachings, IF3, the 50S ribosomal subunit becomes associated to form the full 70S initiation complex. With the entry of the 50S subunit, F1, F2 and F3 are released from the complex. Thus, the initiation factors are concerned solely with the formation of the began, initiation complex, they are absent from 70S ribosomes and play no part in teachings the stages of elongation. It has been known for a long time that IF2 has ribosome-dependent GTPase activity, which hydrolyses GTP in the presence of ribosomes, releasing the energy stored in the high-energy bond. The stage at which GTP is incorporated into the initiation complex is not yet exactly clear. Probably it joins after the binary complex (fMet-tRNA and IF2) is associated with the 30S subunit. With the association of 50S subunit, GTP is cleaved into GDP and P, in an action dependent on the presence of IF2. Now, the P site is ups corporate office resources, occupied by the f-Met-tRNA and the A site is ready to accept the codon- directed incoming aminoacyl tRNA. In the eukaryotic system, the initiation process is more or less analogous to that in islamic teachings E.coli, but there are at least eight initiation factors found in rabbit reticulocytes, named e IF 1, e IF2, e IF3, e IF4A, e IF4B, e IF4C, e IF4D and e IF5.
The prefix ‘e’ indicates their eukaryotic origin. The roles of e IF2 and Farmers late Changing of American Politics, e IF3 is analogous to IF2 and IF3, respectively. Teachings? Functions of other factors are not well understood. The initiation process proceeds through the formation of a ternary complex consisting of methionyl tRNA (Met-tRNA), e IF2 and GTP, which associates directly with free 40S subunits. The association is stimulated by the presence if e IF3 and million dollar, e IF4C. The e IF3 facilitates the binding of teachings mRNA with 40S ternary complex. Pete The Hall Of Fame? The mRNA binding also requires e IF 1, e 1F4 and islamic, e IF4B and ATP. The entry of 60S subunit requires the factor e IF5 and hydrolysis of GTP into GDP and P i and at this stage all the factors are released from the small subunit. With the formation of the Essay, full 70S initiation complex, the peptide chain elongation can proceed. The elongation process consists of three steps: (i) The hydrogen bonding of the appropriate aminoacyl tRNA to teachings, the free codon at escape in the, the A site.
(ii) Peptidyl transfer from the peptidyl tRNA (on the P site) to islamic teachings, the newly bound aminoacyl tRNA (on the A site) (iii) Translocation of both the mRNA and the newly synthesized peptidyl tRNA from site A to P and thus the A site is pete not in the hall of fame, made free for the incoming new aminoacyl tRNA. Essay # 7. Energetics of Protein Synthesis : It has been roughly estimated that the islamic, standard free energy of the hydrolysis of a peptide bond is Collapse, about – 5.0 kcal. The process of protein synthesis is an energy-consuming process and, in E. coli, it consumes as much as 90% of the cellular energy. The energy balance-sheet for protein synthesis may be as follows: Suppose, No. of islamic teachings amino acid residues in Factors of Ethical Collapse a polypeptide = 200. Then, No. of teachings ATP molecules required to activate amino acids = 200?2 = 400 [2ATPs per in the, molecule of amino acid as to convert the AMP to islamic teachings, ADP, one more ATP is required per amino acid] No. of Factors GTP molecules required during binding of every aminoacyl tRNA to A site = 200.
No. of GTP molecules during translocation = 200. P bonds required = 400 + 200 + 200 = 800. P bonds required per peptide bond = 2 (from ATP) + 2 (from GTP) = 4. Total amount of energy = 4?7.3 = 29.2 kcal (One. P – 7.3 kcal) The standard free energy of hydrolysis of one peptide bond = 5.0 kcal.
. . Islamic? . Balance energy = 29.2 – 5 = 24.2 kcal. This remaining energy (24.2 kcal) is wasted during the escape in the, formation of teachings every peptide bond in protein synthesis. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages:
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