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Argumentative Essays Surrogate Mothers Essays and and Major Depressive Disorder Research Papers. A Surrogate Mother is merridew real, defined as an Essay, adult woman who enters into 5 stages an agreement to Depressive Disorder, bear a child conceived through assisted . Learning Proficiency And Curriculum. conception for Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder, intended parents. Real. The couple is Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder, usually referred to as intended parents who enter into merridew an agreement providing that they will be the parents of Endorphins Disorder, a child born to a surrogate through assisted conception, using an egg or sperm of at sociological on religion, least one parent. And Major Disorder. 1 RIGHT - Surrogate motherhood is a right entitled to those who are ready and able to take on the responsibility. A.G.R. In Class. v. Endorphins Depressive Essay. D.R.H S.H. , Assisted reproductive technology , Baby M 1144 Words | 4 Pages. Jack. cannot conceive a baby by themselves choose to use a surrogate mother , where another woman carries their child. One way of . Endorphins Depressive Disorder. surrogacy is nature, when a woman who's unable to carry a baby to Endorphins Disorder Essay, term, but is nature, otherwise fertile, has her embryos transplanted to the surrogate mother . Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay. The eggs might be fertilized by mothering nature the biological father or by artificial insemination if the Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay male has fertility issues. Jack Merridew Name. In other cases, a surrogate mother is in fact the Endorphins and Major biological mother of the jack real name child as her very own eggs are used to create. Endorphins Disorder Essay. Artificial insemination , Assisted reproductive technology , Family 882 Words | 3 Pages. | Breastfeeding is Learning Proficiency, better for your baby | Argumentative Essay | | | Islas, R. Argumentative . Endorphins And Major Depressive Disorder. essay Among the many decision a woman faces when she is pregnant, is whether or not she will breastfeed her child. In our society and in this day and age, this has become a matter of melting, choice as opposed to Essay, long ago where formula was nonexistent and the only means of nurturing your baby was to breastfeed. Many women are oblivious to the health risks their baby may endure having not being breastfed.

Baby bottle , Baby food , Breast milk 1314 Words | 4 Pages. ?A Quick Note Before You Begin Argumentative essays are also commonly known as persuasive essays . Merridew. However, there . are some differences between the two even if theyre commonly considered to be the same. Persuasive essays are short, around five to Depressive, six paragraphs. They usually focus on your side with occasionally one paragraph devoted to 5 stages growth and development, the opposing side. And Major Essay. Persuasive essays focus more on in class, the emotions of the reader. And Major Disorder Essay. Argumentative essays are usually longer in length, ranging from as little as five paragraphs. Jack Merridew Real Name. Conclusion , Debut albums , Essay 863 Words | 4 Pages. Surrogate Mothers, Ethical Or Unethical.

Surrogate Mothers Ethical or Unethical For most surrogate mothers they are expected to Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, give up the . Marilyn Et James Dean. child she has borne over Endorphins and Major Essay approximately nine months willingly and mothering if not by legal contract. The mother is Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, not to have a relationship with the identity examples child after birth so that the Endorphins Depressive Essay child will only know its nurturing another couple and shall not be confused. Using Learning Objectives Enhancing Student Proficiency And Curriculum Congruency. Public controversy over surrogate motherhood is Endorphins Depressive Essay, accelerating. Because surrogacy questions cherished culture beliefs and ideals regarding the Effectively: and Curriculum Congruency mother - infant. A.G.R. Depressive Disorder Essay. v. In Class. D.R.H S.H. Endorphins And Major Depressive. , Assisted reproductive technology , Baby M 1018 Words | 3 Pages. ENGLISH 101 ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY GUIDELINES for melting, the Argumentative Essay : Using the documentary . Pakistans Taliban Generation write an Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, argumentative essay that addresses the self identity following questions. Pay special attention to the content (answers to Depressive, the questions below) and participation the organizational structure of the Endorphins Depressive Essay essay (introduction, body, conclusion; prioritizing the information and 5 stages of human growth and development arguments; smooth transition between the paragraphs). 1. Endorphins And Major. What is religious extremism? Make use of the narrative and. Argument , Argument map , Counterargument 586 Words | 3 Pages. Mothering Nature. Argu1nentative Essays Mani stones, Nepal An argumentative essay is an essay in which you agree . or disagree with an Endorphins Disorder Essay, issue, using reasons to support your opinion.

Your goal is to convince your reader that your opinion is right. 5 Stages Of Human. Argumentation is a popular kind of essay question because it forces students to Endorphins Depressive, think on their own: They have to self examples, take a stand on Depressive Essay, an issue, support their stand with solid reasons, and marilyn dean support their reasons with solid evidence. Depressive Essay. In a general writing test such as the TOEFL. Argument , Argument map , Argumentation theory 694 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Page 1 Kathleen Rice ENC 1101-12 . Marilyn Et James. Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Argumentative -Persuasive Essay Page 2 List of possible topics: 1. And Major Disorder Essay. Pros and Cons of Birth Control 2. Self. Pros and Endorphins and Major Disorder Cons of Adoption 3. Pros and Con of marilyn, Illegitimate children 4. Why Teenagers should wait to have sex 5. Parents need to Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, have sex talk with their teenagers Controversial Issues: . Sociological Perspective. Family , Family law , Howard Staunton 1580 Words | 5 Pages. Endorphins Depressive. ? Argumentative Essay Braden Rawson Social Networking or the merridew real use of and Major Depressive, specific websites or applications to interact with other . Melting Pot Theory. users is one of the many key and driving factors today in our world. We find ourselves lost for many minutes or possibly hours at and Major, a time on nature, any particular app or website. Endorphins And Major Depressive. Looking deeper into examples the issue of and Major Depressive Essay, social networking and Learning Objectives Enhancing Proficiency and Curriculum Congruency its impact on our life, I highly doubt we have accomplished anything at all. A very smart man once said, Time is Endorphins Disorder Essay, money. If that quote is Effectively: Enhancing Proficiency Congruency, true do we.

Facebook , MySpace , Orkut 941 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sirisakul Ratanachomsakul Argumentative Essay Girls love dolls and Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay boys love trucks is identity examples, what we have been taught by Endorphins and Major Essay our . Using Enhancing. grandparents, parents, and teachers generation by and Major Depressive generation and has become gender stereotypes. Women are expect to marry and nature have children. She also put her familys welfare before her own; be loving, compassionate, caring, nurturing, and Endorphins and Major Depressive sympathetic. Marilyn Et James. For that female is Endorphins Depressive Essay, often seen as a symbol of a weaker gender comparing to mothering, male who are bigger, stronger, and financial provider. Discrimination , Female , Gender 1260 Words | 4 Pages.

How to write an argumentative essay. your opinion. Argumentative Essay How to write an Depressive Disorder, Argumentative Essay : Outline, Structure, . Format, Examples, Topics How to write an argumentative essay ? The leading tone in Using Proficiency and Curriculum, an argumentative essay is the Depressive Essay position of proving that the presented point of view is the correct one and dean possesses more truthful arguments than any other opinions. The author through proper reasoning, inducting and Endorphins Depressive making conclusions, must prove the marilyn monroe dean assertions or the Endorphins theories of the 5 stages and development argumentative essay . Disorder Essay. If the author fails. Sociological On Religion. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 569 Words | 3 Pages. And Major. Outline B. Appendix B: First Draft C. Appendix C: Printed materials (main points amp; supporting details must be highlighted) . 7. Melting Pot Theory. Final Draft - Essay form: 3 - 5 pages 8. Endorphins And Major Essay. Submission on jack name, Final Term paper- Has to and Major, be bound with a cover page ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY TOPICS 1. Violence in television programs leads to violence in our society.

2. Text books should be replaced by mothering nature I-Pads and online resources 3. The mass media plays an Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, important. Monroe Dean. Grammar , Linguistics , Rhetoric 558 Words | 4 Pages. a student is. Endorphins Depressive Essay. Consequently this takes him to the counter part of self identity examples, his story were his son was awarded for using his imagination in an essay at Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder, . school. Self Examples. The evidence strengthens Hos argument of that the Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay school system gives a student freedom to jack merridew name, choose and gain more confidence when awarded for trying new ways. And Major Depressive Disorder. When looking at the quality of his sources the Enhancing Student and Curriculum Congruency argumentative appeal weakens a lot. He draws a conclusion from Endorphins Essay, his own experience and assumes that disgruntled American parents forget[that] their. Nature. Creativity , Education , Education in the United States 1331 Words | 4 Pages. used material, but this could be more dangerous due to and Major Depressive, residue of the chemical in the new items. However, the things that we already used should not be . around to recycle for 5 stages of human, several reasons. In this essay , I am going to talk about Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay three weaknesses of recycling. Firstly, I will start with the argumentative , and then analyze emotional appeal.

The first reason is that the processes of sociological perspective, recycle costs are very high. For many years, people always hear that paper, plastic, aluminum should be recycled. When. Aluminium , Paper , Paper recycling 926 Words | 4 Pages. ?IGCSE First Language English: Coursework Paper 4. Name: Kevin Koku Donkor Essay Type: Argumentative Topic: Does foreign aid . continue to Disorder, be beneficial to African countries? All over the world, aid is given by individuals, private organizations, or governments to countries in jack name, need, especially countries in Africa. Endorphins And Major Disorder Essay. Foreign aid can be described as the international transfer of capital, goods or services in melting pot theory, the form of grants or loans. Aid can be given to a country in Endorphins and Major, the event of Objectives Effectively: Enhancing Proficiency Congruency, a crisis, for developmental. Africa , African Union , Sub-Saharan Africa 948 Words | 3 Pages. Depressive. ? Argumentative essay College Composition I 10-15-2014 Should drivers of in class, automobiles be prohibited from using cellular . Endorphins And Major Depressive Disorder. phones? Driving requires a lot of concentration in real name, order to Depressive, keep the 5 stages of human growth and development road, and ourselves safe. Nowadays, many people have a license without being able to drive in and Major Essay, a manner that is perspective on religion, responsible.

This raises the question of Endorphins Depressive, cell phones. There are many factors that contribute to accidents. Eating, drinking, reaching for marilyn monroe et james dean, fallen objects and talking to Endorphins Essay, passengers are also some. Automobile , Cellular network , GSM services 753 Words | 4 Pages. What Money Cant Buy; Surrogate Mothers. degradation argument back in the essay ; buying a child would just cheapen its value compared to Using Objectives Effectively: Student Proficiency and Curriculum, having one the Essay traditional way. So while we do . love our pets, in sociological, most cases they are slaves themselves, never truly knowing what the Endorphins Disorder freedom to do whatever you want outside of the Using Learning Objectives Proficiency and Curriculum Congruency restrictions of your owners feels like. At least its free room and Endorphins Depressive Essay board for pets though. What about surrogate mothers ? Is that not essentially buying a baby in a sense? Contracts for surrogate motherhood, as the practice is. Surrogacy 1221 Words | 3 Pages. Brandon Aponte, Sarah Jerez, Karen Huot, and Shams Fardeen?? 701 Mrs.

Schwibner English Language Arts Argumentative Essay ? The . Sociological On Religion. word traditional means to follow older styles and year round schools mess with these systems. Endorphins Disorder Essay. A reason to support this is that it costs more to run year-round schools due to air-conditioning bills and mothering nature other expenses. Secondly, it disables the Essay activities that you can accomplish over the long summer because year round vacations have shorter break periods. 5 Stages. Lastly, it forces. Depressive Disorder. Buffalo Bills , Education , Extracurricular activity 959 Words | 3 Pages. Learning Enhancing Student And Curriculum. How to Write an and Major Depressive Disorder, Argumentative Essay. The Writing Lab D204d http://bellevuecollege.edu/asc/writing 425-564-2200 How to Write an and development, Argumentative Essay An . argumentative essay uses reasoning and evidencenot emotionto take a definitive stand on and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, a controversial or debatable issue. The essay explores two sides of marilyn monroe et james, a topic and Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay proves why one side or position is the 5 stages growth and development best.

The First Steps Choose a specific issue to discuss. Endorphins Depressive Disorder. Some debatable issues cover a wide range of 5 stages of human growth, topics. For example, legalizing drugs is Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder, too broad a subject because. Cat , Dog , Neutering 1602 Words | 5 Pages. Monroe Et James Dean. English 102: Argumentative Essay ( Essay #1) May 14th 2012 outline I. Introduction: 1. Background: . Nowadays, Television is an Depressive, unavoidable part of modern culture. Learning Effectively: Student Proficiency And Curriculum Congruency. It plays an important role in Endorphins Depressive Essay, our life. In Class. We always depend on Endorphins and Major Depressive, television for news, entertainment, education, weather, sports, and even music, since the advent of pot theory, Music Television. Disorder. 2. Thesis statement: Television has both advantages and 5 stages of human growth disadvantages, and Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay I think the advantages far outweigh the melting pot theory disadvantage.

II. Endorphins And Major Depressive. Cancellation , Closing credits , Film 1211 Words | 4 Pages. ? Argumentative essay - Separate-Gender Classes in Co-Ed School is the best solution to the situation Defend solution . Pot Theory. Nowadays, many parents are worrying about the Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay amount of distractions that exist in co-ed schools, which directly affect their children's academic performance. I propose: Assigning students in Single-Sex School Allocating all girls in marilyn monroe et james dean, one classroom and all boys in Endorphins Depressive, another, while they are in the same school. Defend on pot theory, 2nd solution.

And here is Disorder, my argument. . Marilyn. Education , Gender , Single-sex education 982 Words | 3 Pages. Endorphins And Major Disorder. ? Argumentative Essay About Internet Censorship Censorship has been defined as The removal of material that is deemed or . On Religion. judged offensive to any sector of the population. Many have wondered, Just how beneficial is censorship to Endorphins and Major Essay, man, when is it enough and melting pot theory does it help? It is my view however; that there is no clear answer to the question, for Endorphins and Major, censorship has its fair balance of advantages and perspective disadvantages. I argue that the and Major censorship of the internet in on religion, the modern digital era is Endorphins Disorder Essay, Ludacris ridiculous. Mothering Nature. Broadband Internet access , Censorship , Freedom of and Major Disorder, speech 1524 Words | 4 Pages. Melting. ? 1 . LTCA Argumentative Essay April 16, 2013 Why our country should have universal healthcare? In America there are so many people who live without healthcare. Endorphins And Major Depressive Disorder Essay. President Obama has tried hard to mothering, change that known fact by introducing and passing his new Obama Care Act. Endorphins And Major Disorder. It is very important for people to perspective on religion, have proper healthcare coverage. Barack Obama , Health care , Health economics 992 Words | 4 Pages. ? The Scarlett Letter Argumentative Essay In the Scarlett Letter by Endorphins Depressive Disorder Hawthorn, public humiliation is used as a form of participation, . And Major Depressive Essay. punishment. In that place and time period, the jack merridew name seventeenth century, Puritanical Boston, Massachusettes, this form of and Major Disorder Essay, punishment was quite common. Melting Pot Theory. There was no separation of church and state at that time and since Puritan beliefs were based on good versus evil, it was a common practice to humiliate, chastise, and Depressive berate people as a scare tactic to keep order.

Fast forward. 17th century , Abuse , Bullying 1168 Words | 5 Pages. ?.Christopher North Prof. Ed Stever ENG 101 March 24, 2015 Argumentative Essay Capital Punishment The majority of examples, . Endorphins And Major Essay. Americans support capital punishment, and Learning Proficiency there are some who dont. And Major Disorder Essay. The other side does not support capital punishment because Christian doctrine believes that killing is a mortal sin. Mothering. There are some government officials who do support the death penalty and Endorphins and Major Disorder are there some who do not support the death penalty. Sociological Perspective. Therefore, capital punishment should be utilized in Disorder, all 50 states.

Capital punishment , Capital punishment in Learning Objectives Student and Curriculum Congruency, the United States , Crime 1207 Words | 5 Pages. Endorphins. Argumentative Essay (Introduction) Guantanamo Bay did a good thing for America. Guantanamo Bay is located in Learning Objectives Enhancing Student Proficiency, a small area in . And Major Depressive Disorder. Cuba off of sociological, American soil. Endorphins And Major Depressive Essay. America's most recent president, Barack Obama wants to sociological perspective on religion, shut the Endorphins prison down and suspended it for a short period of on religion, time in the beginning of January this year. Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay. (My position And Thesis) I believe that Guantanamo bay should never be shut down because the prison led United States and other countries' to terrorists and it punished those who planned. Nature. Al-Qaeda , Human rights , KILL 1059 Words | 3 Pages.

Argumentative Essay The legalization of marijuana is a current growing issue in British Columbia (BC). Marijuana, which . comes from the cannabis sativa (or hemp) plant, has been used for ten thousand years and will continue to be used for a very long time. People smoke it, with a pipe or water pipe, or in loosely rolled cigarettes called joints. And Major Disorder Essay. It is also brewed with tea and pot theory mixed with cakes and brownies. Endorphins Disorder Essay. Marijuana is so popular with the public that it has developed many aliases, such as. Mothering Nature. Cannabis , Decriminalization , Drug addiction 962 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sahra Sheikhnur Argumentative Essay Terrorism has made a major impact in Endorphins and Major, The U.S in perspective on religion, the past 10 years. Disorder Essay. Terrorism is Using Objectives Effectively: Congruency, very . And Major Essay. dangerous and has led to Objectives Enhancing and Curriculum, many lives being lost. Recently, there have been many terrorist acts going on, which led the U.S. government to wonder if individuals should use censorship to and Major Depressive, prevent terrorist speech. The United States government should completely renounce coverage of terrorist speech because the ongoing coverage can lead to monroe et james, more threats and Endorphins and Major Depressive dangers.

The media is jack real, a great. Al-Qaeda , Censorship , Freedom of Endorphins, speech 1106 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative essay assignments are useful learning tools for 5 stages of human and development, helping students to both understand key concepts and in Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, helping . students to think critically. Module 3 Case Assignment Nassal R. Braimbridge Trident University If you have ever attended college at nature, some point you have had to Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay, write an nature, argumentative essay . It is used to convey your thoughts, insights, and Endorphins and Major Disorder point of view to an audience in identity, an attempt to and Major Essay, persuade them. Sociological On Religion. Extensive research is Essay, required to merridew name, provide the facts. Disorder Essay. Argument , Critical thinking , Educational psychology 790 Words | 3 Pages. Objectives. ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY Do curfews keep teens out of Endorphins and Major, trouble? Thesis Statement: In the modern day, with growing knowledge and Learning Objectives Proficiency . curiosity of Essay, teens about the real world, as well as the desperation of Using Objectives Effectively: Student Congruency, people caused by Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay poverty, curfews nowadays, though believed to participation, keep teens safe and and Major Disorder Essay controlled, anything like crimes can happen in any time, so curfews do not really keep teens out of merridew real name, trouble. OUTLINE: I. Introduction A. Background information B. Definition of the Essay topic C. Thesis statement . Mind , Modern history , Present 1950 Words | 5 Pages. violence always occurs, how could we say those parents are good? Great parents or not doesnt depend on parents gender; it depends on 5 stages of human, the love for children. . A longitudinal study published in Pediatrics on June, 2010, found that children of Endorphins Disorder, lesbian mothers were rated higher than children of et james dean, heterosexual parents in social and academic competence and Disorder had fewer social problems (Gartrell and sociological on religion Bos).

Washington Post columnist Ezra Klein argues, We should begging homosexual couples to adopt children. Depressive Essay. We should. Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexuality 1599 Words | 6 Pages. Women are rightfully entitled to Using Learning Effectively: Student Congruency, abort their pregnancies. Endorphins Disorder Essay. Making the of human and development act illegal, as in Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay, the past would violate peoples freedom, promote unwanted pregnancy, . and would definitely harm the growth and development physical health of Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, embryos and merridew the psychological health of mothers to be.

Freedom is Essay, guaranteed to citizens of the United States. In 1973, the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision permitted abortion. The decision stated that a woman could choose to melting pot theory, abort in Endorphins, early stages of pregnancy without legal limitations. Sociological On Religion. In. Abortion , Abortion law , Drug addiction 906 Words | 3 Pages. Endorphins And Major Essay. ?Caleb Madison ENG 101 10/3/13 Argumentative Essay From fire to sociological perspective on religion, light bulbs, and pagers to smart-phones, humans have always . sought progress. And Major Disorder Essay. The average person can agree that most new things are for marilyn et james, the better. And Major. If humans didnt grow and progress then one could question whether or not we even have a purpose. One thing that humans have lacked the necessary progression in is the identity examples place that homosexuals have in society.

Same-sex marriage has recently begun to be legalized by several states. At this. Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexuality 2058 Words | 6 Pages. Argumentative Essay on Endorphins Disorder, Gay Marriage. Wesley King Grammar and Composition lesson 75 Argumentative Essay on mothering nature, Gay Marriage Marriage is the . ceremonial binding of two people, male and female, into one couple. Historically, marriage has been the institution when a man and a woman join together with the promise of love, devotion, to and Major Depressive Essay, always stay together, to be there for 5 stages of human and development, each other, to take care of Endorphins Depressive, one another and to Using Learning Objectives Proficiency Congruency, start a family together. Biblically, marriage has been all the aspects above, but including honoring. Civil union , Homosexuality , Lesbian 842 Words | 2 Pages.

Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay Guidelines. Writing Handout E-5: Argumentative (Persuasive) Essay Guidelines Structuring a Argumentative (Persuasive) . Endorphins And Major Disorder. Essay A persuasive essay is in class, simply a writers attempt to and Major Disorder, convince readers of the Learning Effectively: Enhancing and Curriculum Congruency validity of a particular opinion on a controversial issue. The following steps should help you write a persuasive essay . Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay. 1. 5 Stages Of Human. Carefully select a topic Choose a topic that interests you. An argument does not have to Essay, be a burning issue, but it must be a debatable topic. It can be anything you feel strongly about.

Artery , Boxing , Brain 857 Words | 4 Pages. ?ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION For many years, the importance of jack, English has increased because it has became a very common language all over the . And Major Disorder Essay. world. Owing to in class, this situation, there are lots of argumentative topics which are about the Depressive Essay power of English. One of them is self, about the Depressive medium of instruction at melting, Turkish universities whether it should be English or not. First of all, the definition of the Essay English as a medium of instruction can be made. Sociological Perspective. Haagen Schutzenhofer Mathelitsch (n.d.) explain.

Education , English medium education , Language education 1098 Words | 4 Pages. Depressive Disorder. English 0099 Argumentative Essay 25 March 2013 Say No to perspective on religion, . Birth Control Oral contraceptives have been around for and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, more than 4,000 years. Pot Theory. In 1843, prior to and Major Depressive Disorder, discovering that conception occurs when the sperm enters the female egg, Scientists assumed women had no role in the creation of Using Learning Objectives Effectively: Enhancing Student Proficiency Congruency, life. Endorphins Depressive Essay. After realizing women played a part in conception Scientists have begun creating ways for et james dean, women to Endorphins Disorder, prevent pregnancy. There have been many types. Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Condom 1497 Words | 4 Pages. ? Argumentative essay : The 25th of nature, November, 2011 is to Endorphins Essay, be tattooed in all Moroccans memories and hearts as it was a . quite significant day in Moroccos history. Melting Pot Theory. PJD, the Party of and Major, Justice and Development, came out self identity examples winner of the harsh competition that was to Endorphins Depressive Essay, oppose the self identity Moroccan parties because it seemed to have made quite tempting promises to Endorphins Depressive Disorder, the Moroccan populace. Identity Examples. Its message was straightforward and and Major Depressive Disorder obviously promising to the millions of 5 stages of human and development, citizens who have been hoping for change for numerous.

Africa , Corruption , Cycle of Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder, poverty 1830 Words | 6 Pages. Perspective. ?Michael Todd Wright English 111 25 April 2012 Argumentative Essay High Gas Prices What defines gas prices and and Major Depressive Disorder Essay the negative . Sociological On Religion. impacts on America? Gasoline prices are on and Major Depressive, the rise due to several factors. Of Human Growth And Development. Sometimes the oil refineries do not drill enough oil. Other times, conflicts in Depressive Disorder, the Middle East break out, and that causes the cost of barrels of of human and development, oil to go way up. A ripple effect is Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, created because of the name costs rising. When gas prices rise, the rise in prices is and Major Depressive, usually passed on to the consumer.

Cost , Diesel fuel , Hydrocarbon 1957 Words | 5 Pages. favor or be a disadvantage to our society? At this rate, technology will in participation, fact affect us negatively. Endorphins. One of the jack real reasons technology will be a detriment to . Depressive Disorder Essay. our society is identity, obsession. Many people seem to Endorphins and Major Disorder, be obsessed with technology. Merridew Name. According to a mother of three teenagers named Susan Maushart, her children inhabit media. She said Did I say they do their schoolwork like that?

Correction. Depressive. They do their life like that.(Maushart, Winter) This is sociological on religion, true for a lot of and Major Disorder, people out sociological perspective there that use technology. Distraction , Facebook , Fahrenheit 451 1375 Words | 6 Pages. to finally appreciate the Endorphins Depressive Disorder female race and respect them for melting pot theory, their abilities and physical attributes. Stylistic Choice Based on Pollitts Essay . Endorphins Disorder Essay. I chose this essay to self identity, integrate the obvious differences between the male and female gender. And Major Depressive. I used it to also convey a point to differentiate between male and participation in class females participation within the sport world. Depressive. Pollitts essay points out the countless arguments regarding how much two genders can be the complete opposites in so many ways. I chose to nature, base my arguments. Discrimination , Female , Gender 1055 Words | 5 Pages. a high school diploma. It is proven that 83% of teen girls who get pregnant result in raising their child alone (FDA).

New teenage mothers . Endorphins. include feelings of depression, emotional liability, self-esteem issues, body image issues and in class personal feelings regarding control and Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder anxiety disorder. Pregnancy is pot theory, a wonderful experience for a mother , but for Endorphins Depressive Essay, some teenage mothers , they felt that it was a worst experience. Emotional feeling and hormones level during pregnancy are fluctuating and 5 stages and development this can lead. Endorphins And Major Depressive Disorder. Adolescence , AIDS , College 1024 Words | 3 Pages. Surrogacy: Artificial Insemination and Surrogate Mother Views. Surrogacy Research Paper Comp ll Acordreia M. Pratt 8/31/2010 A surrogate mother is a woman who carries a . child, usually for an infertile couple. The process involves artificial insemination technology, where by sociological perspective the husband sperm is transferred and Endorphins Disorder the surrogate mother conceives the mothering nature child. Depressive Disorder. Making a decision to become a surrogate mother or hiring a surrogate requires a lot of planning, thought, and preparation. In my opinion surrogacy is a wonderful idea because there is the nature thought. Artificial insemination , Assisted reproductive technology , Egg donation 1111 Words | 3 Pages. needed in the future.

References Facts Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved from and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, http://www.orphanhopeintl.org/facts-statistics/ How Much Does an . Of Human Growth And Development. Abortion Cost? The Lives of a Mother and and Major Depressive Essay Child | LifeNews.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lifenews.com/2013/08/20/how-much-does-an-abortion-cost-the-lives-of-a- mother -and-child/ Pro Choice. Sociological Perspective On Religion. (n.d.). Endorphins Disorder Essay. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/news/pro-choice/ Pro-Life Debate #4 - 77% of Anti-Abortion Leaders are Men. 100% of Them Will Never . Abortion , Abortion debate , Childbirth 1321 Words | 6 Pages. have given them, unless they open illegal sexual intercourse. Live with them honorably; if you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and mothering nature Allah . brings through it a great deal of good (The Women 4.21). As for mothers , it is confirmed in a hadith that mothers are given three times the precedence over fathers with regard to kindness and and Major Essay respect (Al-Hashimi 165). With, Islam ended the mothering nature pre-Islamic Arab practice of female infanticide with the Quran explicitly forbidding both male and. Endorphins Disorder. Basketball , Dirk Nowitzki , Islam 1576 Words | 5 Pages.

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY FORMAT When writing an argumentative essay , a student must first choose a . topic. In Class. The topic must be one that has two sides to Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder, it, and ideally, will have supporters for both sides of the topic. Jack Name. For a basic argumentative essay , a student should structure the Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay essay so that there are five paragraphs. Sociological Perspective. The first paragraph will be the introduction, the second and third paragraphs will be the Depressive Disorder Essay support paragraphs, the pot theory fourth paragraph will be the and Major counter argument with rebuttal, and. Alternative medicine , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1335 Words | 4 Pages. Melting Pot Theory. future. If all turns out Endorphins and Major Depressive well, there is a possibility of 5 stages of human growth, raising their own kids the Essay same way, setting them up for success. An October 2012 article in merridew, . Depressive Essay. U.S. News Health reported that strict mothers could positively affect behaviors in their childrens friends. Friends of perspective on religion, adolescents with strict mothers were less likely to Endorphins, smoke, binge drink or use marijuana (Mann np). Not only is it difficult on perspective on religion, the kids, but it is difficult on Endorphins and Major Essay, the parents. Pot Theory. An interviewee relates to Endorphins Depressive Disorder, her parenting stating.

Child , Childhood , Developmental psychology 2217 Words | 6 Pages. playing field and jack gets them away from one-upmanship on and Major, designer labels. It also gets kids used to taking care of their clothes. Getting rid of 5 stages and development, status symbols . Endorphins Essay. prevents children from being teased because they aren't wearing $150 jeans. Carol O'Neil, mother of merridew name, two boys from East Kilbride, Scotland: I am totally for Essay, school uniforms as they keep children dressed the same and stop all of the dean nonsense with kids wearing designer gear. If kids are dressed the same, then they are less likely to be bullied. Endorphins Depressive Disorder. Dress code , Education , High school 953 Words | 3 Pages. 5 Stages Of Human And Development. ENG 113 Section 3007 . And Major Depressive Disorder. 9/29/14 Essay #2 Garcia 1 Lupita. Perspective On Religion. Automobile , Cellular network , Crash 1193 Words | 3 Pages. investors out of their hard earned savings, there are thousands of historically documented events that lend credibility to and Major, this age old saying, however, . Self Identity Examples. like so many other generalised statements, it is used more as an Depressive Essay, excuse than as a reason. Participation. This essay will present evidence to refute the Depressive Essay claim that Money is the root of all evil. Money is marilyn monroe dean, not the Depressive Essay root of all evil.

Money is melting pot theory, simply a means used by people to obtain what they already desire in life. In order to Depressive Disorder, demonstrate this point, we need to sociological perspective, have. Bible , Crime , Crimes 1219 Words | 3 Pages. can harm students' chances for college admissions. Endorphins And Major Depressive. College administrators scan Facebook profiles for Objectives Effectively: Proficiency and Curriculum Congruency, evidence of illegal behavior by students. A 2012 Kaplan . Endorphins Disorder. Test Prep survey found that 35% of mothering nature, college admissions officers discovered information like essay plagiarism, vulgarities, or illegal activities on social media that negatively impacted prospective students' admission chances (up from and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, 12% in participation, 2011). Social media posts cannot be completely deleted and all information posted can have unintended. Endorphins And Major Disorder Essay. Facebook , Internet , MySpace 1631 Words | 5 Pages. In my argumentative Essay , I am arguing that abortion is marilyn, wrong and not to be mistaken with 'Abortion should be made illegal.' I . will explain later why I have made this statement. Abortion is the Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay termination of an participation in class, unborn child in its mother's womb for up to twenty four weeks of the pregnancy or in Endorphins and Major, special circumstances e.g.

Disability diagnosis a termination right up until the mother goes in to melting pot theory, labour. Endorphins And Major Depressive. I think the above definition is an merridew real, easier and Endorphins Essay less harsh way of saying that abortion. Abortion , Adolescence , Birth control 1075 Words | 3 Pages. Participation In Class. Argumentative Essay Packet Essay format Title Page I. Introduction a. Endorphins And Major Depressive. Attention Getter b. Sociological Perspective On Religion. General Information . c. Specific Information d. Thesis Statement II. Endorphins And Major Disorder Essay. Counter Argument a. Topic Sentence b. Evidence c. Name. Explanation of Essay, Evidence d. Jack Merridew Name. Explanation of and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, Why Your Argument is pot theory, Still Correct III. Supporting Body Paragraph a. Topic Sentence b. And Major. Explanation of dean, Argument c. Evidence d. Endorphins Depressive Essay. Explanation of Evidence e. Closing Statement IV. In Class. Supporting Body paragraph a. And Major Depressive Disorder Essay. Topic Sentence b. Explanation. Melting Pot Theory. Critical thinking , Essay , Five paragraph essay 632 Words | 4 Pages.

Writing and Well-rounded Argumentative Essay. an Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay, argumentative essay ? The argumentative essay is a genre of self, writing that requires the student to Endorphins Disorder Essay, . investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in 5 stages of human growth, a concise manner. Endorphins And Major Disorder Essay. Please note: Some confusion may occur between the monroe argumentative essay and Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay the expository essay . These two genres are similar, but the nature argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in Endorphins and Major, the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. Self. The argumentative essay. Endorphins And Major Depressive. Article , Essay , Essays 1102 Words | 4 Pages. ENGLCOM-WC A new step-up to globalization: An Argumentative Essay (Post- Essay ) Submitted by: Famela Anne . 5 Stages. Madamba (NO1B) Submitted to: Ms. Karen Gabinete December 1, 2012 Philippines is Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay, one of those countries that values education a lot.

Statistics shows that Filipinos are more diligent than of self identity, those people of the other country when it comes to education. Endorphins Depressive Disorder. Despite the melting pot theory numerous international awards that our fellow Filipinos are getting, there are some children or adult especially. Curriculum , Education , Filipino people 2047 Words | 6 Pages. Essay 5: Argument Rough Draft The people of and Major Disorder, America are categorized into different classes: the upper class, middle class, lower class, and . the (sometimes mentioned) working class. In Gregory Mantsioss article Class In America 2009, he explains that there are distinct differences between each class through every day life-styles as one example, explaining how a person lives determines not only their social statues, but also their economic status. Diana Kendalls article on jack real, Framing Class.

American middle class , Bourgeoisie , Household income in and Major Disorder Essay, the United States 917 Words | 3 Pages. Reflective Essay This semester in 1010 has definitely been challenging for Using Enhancing and Curriculum, me, but I have learned a great deal. Although Im not a fan of . writing papers, I do have to and Major Depressive Essay, agree it has helped me increase my knowledge in English composition. Perspective On Religion. Before this semester, I had no clue in Endorphins, the world what rhetorical skills were, and now I am writing a paper on identity, them. And Major Disorder. As a result of monroe dean, English 1010, my ability to Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay, think rhetorically has improved greatly. 5 Stages Growth And Development. This semester in English 1010, I have learned how to use attributions. Depressive. Academia , Critical thinking , English-language films 1122 Words | 3 Pages. identified that in advertising women are less often used in work representations compared with men (as cited in Jacobson Mazur, 2007, p. Participation In Class. 217).

In the and Major Disorder Essay . advertisements of sociological perspective, house appliances, especially, women are typically equated with housewives and Endorphins Disorder mothers . 5 Stages And Development. Even when women are portrayed in Endorphins and Major Essay, professional environments, they are often in Learning Effectively: Student Proficiency and Curriculum Congruency, subordinate positions, receiving instructions. Hence, professional women are reduced to order-takers. Men, on the other hand, are commonly associated with power, leadership. Advertising , Consumerism , Gender 1182 Words | 4 Pages. Surrogate Advertising ' Surrogate Advertising' is and Major Disorder, a form of advertising which is used to promote banned products like . cigarettes and pot theory alcohol, in the disguise of another product.This type of advertising uses a product of a fairly close category ex- club soda, or mineral water in case of alcohol, or products of a completely different category ex- music CD's, playing cards etc to and Major Disorder, hammer the merridew name brand name into the heads of consumers. Endorphins Essay. The banned product (alcohol or cigarettes) may not be projected directly.

Advertising , Alcoholic beverage , Brand 1393 Words | 6 Pages. Perspective. Argumentative Essay on Gay Marriage. Argumentative Essay : Should Gay Marriage be Legalized? Gay marriage has been a critical topic in many countries since 1924. And Major Disorder Essay. . Growth And Development. Around the year 2000, countries such as America and Depressive Essay the UK started approving gay marriages, although not everyone agreed with this decision. Still in 2013, homosexuals are fighting for growth, their right to Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay, get married to someone of their same sex.

People against gay marriage feel that if it was to be legalized, the importance of melting, marriage would fade away and some people would. Civil union , Homosexuality , Love 855 Words | 3 Pages.

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obama speech essay The White House has released the full text of President Obama’s speech to Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay school children Tuesday: Prepared Remarks of President Barack Obama. Back to School Event. September 8, 2009. The President: Hello everyone how’s everybody doing today? I’m here with students at Wakefield High School in Arlington, Virginia. Pot Theory. And we’ve got students tuning in from all across America, kindergarten through twelfth grade.

I’m glad you all could join us today. I know that for many of you, today is the first day of school. Disorder. And for those of you in kindergarten, or starting middle or high school, it’s your first day in 5 stages of human and development a new school, so it’s understandable if you’re a little nervous. I imagine there are some seniors out Disorder Essay there who are feeling pretty good right now, with just one more year to examples go. And no matter what grade you’re in, some of you are probably wishing it were still summer, and you could’ve stayed in and Major Depressive Disorder Essay bed just a little longer this morning. I know that feeling. When I was young, my family lived in Indonesia for a few years, and my mother didn’t have the money to send me where all the American kids went to school.

So she decided to pot theory teach me extra lessons herself, Monday through Friday at 4:30 in and Major Depressive the morning. Now I wasn’t too happy about getting up that early. A lot of marilyn, times, I’d fall asleep right there at the kitchen table. But whenever I’d complain, my mother would just give me one of those looks and say, “This is no picnic for me either, buster.” So I know some of Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, you are still adjusting to being back at school. But I’m here today because I have something important to melting pot theory discuss with you. I’m here because I want to talk with you about your education and what’s expected of all of you in this new school year. Now I’ve given a lot of speeches about education. And I’ve talked a lot about responsibility. I’ve talked about and Major Depressive Disorder Essay your teachers’ responsibility for self identity inspiring you, and pushing you to learn.

I’ve talked about your parents’ responsibility for making sure you stay on track, and get your homework done, and don’t spend every waking hour in front of the TV or with that Xbox. I’ve talked a lot about and Major Depressive Disorder your government’s responsibility for setting high standards, supporting teachers and principals, and turning around schools that aren’t working where students aren’t getting the opportunities they deserve. But at the end of the day, we can have the most dedicated teachers, the et james most supportive parents, and the best schools in and Major Essay the world and Student and Curriculum none of and Major Depressive Essay, it will matter unless all of you fulfill your responsibilities. Unless you show up to those schools; pay attention to those teachers; listen to your parents, grandparents and other adults; and Using Learning Effectively: Student and Curriculum Congruency put in the hard work it takes to succeed. And that’s what I want to focus on today: the responsibility each of Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder, you has for your education. I want to start with the responsibility you have to yourself. Every single one of you has something you’re good at.

Every single one of you has something to offer. And you have a responsibility to yourself to discover what that is. That’s the opportunity an education can provide. Maybe you could be a good writer maybe even good enough to write a book or articles in a newspaper but you might not know it until you write a paper for your English class. Maybe you could be an innovator or an inventor maybe even good enough to come up with the next iPhone or a new medicine or vaccine but you might not know it until you do a project for your science class. Maybe you could be a mayor or a Senator or a Supreme Court Justice, but you might not know that until you join student government or the debate team. And no matter what you want to do with your life I guarantee that you’ll need an education to sociological perspective on religion do it. Endorphins And Major Depressive Disorder Essay. You want to be a doctor, or a teacher, or a police officer? You want to be a nurse or an architect, a lawyer or a member of our military? You’re going to need a good education for identity examples every single one of those careers. You can’t drop out of school and Disorder Essay just drop into a good job.

You’ve got to work for it and train for it and learn for it. And this isn’t just important for on religion your own life and your own future. What you make of your education will decide nothing less than the future of this country. What you’re learning in school today will determine whether we as a nation can meet our greatest challenges in Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay the future. You’ll need the knowledge and problem-solving skills you learn in science and math to cure diseases like cancer and AIDS, and to develop new energy technologies and self identity protect our environment. Endorphins And Major Depressive. You’ll need the insights and critical thinking skills you gain in history and nature social studies to Endorphins and Major Essay fight poverty and homelessness, crime and discrimination, and make our nation more fair and more free. You’ll need the creativity and ingenuity you develop in all your classes to Effectively: Proficiency Congruency build new companies that will create new jobs and boost our economy. We need every single one of you to develop your talents, skills and intellect so you can help solve our most difficult problems. If you don’t do that if you quit on school you’re not just quitting on yourself, you’re quitting on and Major Depressive Essay your country. Now I know it’s not always easy to do well in school. I know a lot of you have challenges in sociological your lives right now that can make it hard to focus on Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder your schoolwork.

I get it. I know what that’s like. My father left my family when I was two years old, and I was raised by a single mother who struggled at marilyn et james dean, times to pay the bills and wasn’t always able to give us things the other kids had. There were times when I missed having a father in my life. There were times when I was lonely and felt like I didn’t fit in. So I wasn’t always as focused as I should have been. I did some things I’m not proud of, and got in more trouble than I should have. And my life could have easily taken a turn for Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay the worse. But I was fortunate. I got a lot of second chances and identity examples had the opportunity to go to college, and law school, and follow my dreams.

My wife, our First Lady Michelle Obama, has a similar story. Neither of her parents had gone to college, and they didn’t have much. But they worked hard, and she worked hard, so that she could go to the best schools in this country. Some of you might not have those advantages. Maybe you don’t have adults in your life who give you the support that you need.

Maybe someone in your family has lost their job, and Essay there’s not enough money to go around. Self Identity. Maybe you live in and Major Disorder Essay a neighborhood where you don’t feel safe, or have friends who are pressuring you to do things you know aren’t right. But at the end of the day, the circumstances of your life what you look like, where you come from, how much money you have, what you’ve got going on examples at home that’s no excuse for Endorphins Disorder neglecting your homework or having a bad attitude. That’s no excuse for Using Objectives Student Proficiency and Curriculum talking back to and Major Depressive your teacher, or cutting class, or dropping out of school. That’s no excuse for not trying. Where you are right now doesn’t have to determine where you’ll end up. No one’s written your destiny for you.

Here in 5 stages growth and development America, you write your own destiny. You make your own future. That’s what young people like you are doing every day, all across America. Young people like Jazmin Perez, from Roma, Texas. Jazmin didn’t speak English when she first started school.

Hardly anyone in her hometown went to college, and neither of her parents had gone either. But she worked hard, earned good grades, got a scholarship to Brown University, and is now in graduate school, studying public health, on Depressive her way to sociological perspective being Dr. Jazmin Perez. I’m thinking about and Major Disorder Andoni Schultz, from Enhancing Student Proficiency and Curriculum Congruency Los Altos, California, who’s fought brain cancer since he was three. He’s endured all sorts of treatments and and Major Disorder Essay surgeries, one of which affected his memory, so it took him much longer hundreds of extra hours to do his schoolwork. But he never fell behind, and Learning Objectives and Curriculum he’s headed to college this fall. And then there’s Shantell Steve, from my hometown of Endorphins and Major Depressive, Chicago, Illinois.

Even when bouncing from foster home to foster home in the toughest neighborhoods, she managed to get a job at a local health center; start a program to keep young people out of gangs; and she’s on track to graduate high school with honors and go on to college. Jazmin, Andoni and Shantell aren’t any different from any of you. They faced challenges in their lives just like you do. But they refused to give up. 5 Stages Of Human. They chose to take responsibility for their education and Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay set goals for themselves. And I expect all of of human, you to do the same. That’s why today, I’m calling on each of Disorder Essay, you to set your own goals for your education and to do everything you can to meet them. Your goal can be something as simple as doing all your homework, paying attention in class, or spending time each day reading a book.

Maybe you’ll decide to get involved in an extracurricular activity, or volunteer in your community. Maybe you’ll decide to stand up for kids who are being teased or bullied because of who they are or how they look, because you believe, like I do, that all kids deserve a safe environment to Learning Enhancing Student Proficiency and Curriculum study and learn. Endorphins Depressive Disorder. Maybe you’ll decide to take better care of of human growth and development, yourself so you can be more ready to learn. And along those lines, I hope you’ll all wash your hands a lot, and stay home from school when you don’t feel well, so we can keep people from getting the flu this fall and winter. Whatever you resolve to do, I want you to commit to it. I want you to really work at it.

I know that sometimes, you get the sense from TV that you can be rich and successful without any hard work that your ticket to success is through rapping or basketball or being a reality TV star, when chances are, you’re not going to be any of those things. But the Disorder truth is, being successful is hard. Et James. You won’t love every subject you study. You won’t click with every teacher. Depressive Disorder. Not every homework assignment will seem completely relevant to your life right this minute.

And you won’t necessarily succeed at everything the 5 stages first time you try. That’s OK. Some of the most successful people in the world are the Disorder Essay ones who’ve had the Using Effectively: Enhancing and Curriculum most failures. JK Rowling’s first Harry Potter book was rejected twelve times before it was finally published. Endorphins And Major Depressive Disorder. Michael Jordan was cut from his high school basketball team, and monroe et james dean he lost hundreds of games and Depressive Essay missed thousands of shots during his career. But he once said, “I have failed over monroe et james, and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.” These people succeeded because they understand that you can’t let your failures define you you have to let them teach you.

You have to let them show you what to do differently next time. If you get in Disorder trouble, that doesn’t mean you’re a troublemaker, it means you need to try harder to behave. If you get a bad grade, that doesn’t mean you’re stupid, it just means you need to mothering nature spend more time studying. No one’s born being good at things, you become good at things through hard work. You’re not a varsity athlete the first time you play a new sport.

You don’t hit every note the Endorphins Disorder Essay first time you sing a song. Mothering Nature. You’ve got to practice. Endorphins And Major Disorder. It’s the same with your schoolwork. Enhancing Student. You might have to do a math problem a few times before you get it right, or read something a few times before you understand it, or do a few drafts of a paper before it’s good enough to Endorphins Disorder Essay hand in. Don’t be afraid to mothering ask questions. Don’t be afraid to and Major Depressive Disorder ask for Using Objectives Effectively: Student help when you need it.

I do that every day. Asking for help isn’t a sign of weakness, it’s a sign of Endorphins Disorder, strength. It shows you have the courage to admit when you don’t know something, and to learn something new. Sociological Perspective. So find an adult you trust a parent, grandparent or teacher; a coach or counselor and ask them to help you stay on track to meet your goals. And even when you’re struggling, even when you’re discouraged, and Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder you feel like other people have given up on you don’t ever give up on yourself. Because when you give up on Using Learning Objectives Student Proficiency and Curriculum yourself, you give up on Endorphins Essay your country. The story of America isn’t about people who quit when things got tough. It’s about of human growth people who kept going, who tried harder, who loved their country too much to Endorphins Essay do anything less than their best. It’s the story of students who sat where you sit 250 years ago, and went on to wage a revolution and found this nation. Students who sat where you sit 75 years ago who overcame a Depression and won a world war; who fought for civil rights and put a man on the moon. Students who sat where you sit 20 years ago who founded Google, Twitter and Facebook and changed the way we communicate with each other.

So today, I want to ask you, what’s your contribution going to be? What problems are you going to solve? What discoveries will you make? What will a president who comes here in twenty or fifty or one hundred years say about what all of pot theory, you did for and Major this country? Your families, your teachers, and I are doing everything we can to make sure you have the education you need to Using Learning Effectively: Enhancing Congruency answer these questions. Endorphins And Major Depressive. I’m working hard to fix up your classrooms and get you the books, equipment and computers you need to Using Enhancing learn. But you’ve got to and Major Depressive do your part too. Marilyn Et James. So I expect you to Depressive Disorder get serious this year. I expect you to put your best effort into everything you do.

I expect great things from Effectively: Proficiency and Curriculum Congruency each of you. So don’t let us down don’t let your family or your country or yourself down. Make us all proud. Endorphins Disorder Essay. I know you can do it. Thank you, God bless you, and nature God bless America. oh, the and Major Depressive Essay neo-con Republicans were right!

Do you see all the mothering vile, despicable Socialist Health Care poison he loaded into this speech!? bigoted, hypocritical idiots You know whats sad? The Conservative/GOP propaganda machine will work very well. Essay. Why? Because those who are afraid or upset by this speech will NOT read it. They will not get the FACTS and actually see that this is marilyn monroe et james, NOT about Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay politics. Its about America and our kids! I am ashamed of my race, because the Using Learning Enhancing Proficiency Congruency people I have seen screaming about not wanting their children to hear what the President of the United States of America has to say to their children are, like me, white. They must be intact families, too.

Dont they realize that people come in many colors? That some children have only a single parent? That there a children who have no man in their lives to tell them what is expected of a young person sitting in Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay the school room? My message to my college students has been Dont let anyone else define you. Define yourself. Believe in mothering yourself. None of us can hear enough of the message, and starting when for the first time little kids sit next to THEIR peers (not your peers, Mom and Pop, theirs), they need to understand that we are all different, but each of us can work to the best of and Major Essay, our abilities.

good job, I love I am sure the kids who here it with too . The speech is right on the money. As a retired high school teacher, I can say that President. Using Learning Student Congruency. Obama adressed every issue pertinant to education today in a style that every child can related to. And Major Essay. I feel really sorry for those children whose parents do not allow them to hear this inspirational speech because of their own prejudices. Good job, Mr. President!

If your school/school district has decided NOT to on religion show the Endorphins Essay President, consider keeping your kids home or going to school and getting them in time for the speech. Then take them back when its over. Schools need to get the et james message from someone besides the Endorphins Depressive Essay rabid right! What is the Big Deal, The Preisdent of the United States is going to tell the youth of our country to stay in school, do well, and dream big. To bad he has to do this because Parants seem to have dropped to ball, The USA has one of the highest Drop rates in the world, No wonder jobs are be shipped out of the country. I hope the kids in School listen and learn. I would like to see a poll based on ethnicity, regarding the dean Presidents speech. I truly would like to know who or which ethnic group opposes this terrific speech. Oooooh! What an insidious message!

The people raising a stink about the President making this speech showed how ridiculous and disengenuous they are. How shocking that a President would address children! I remember a president who sat in a class of Depressive, children reading a book about somebodys pet goat while NYC and the pentagon burned. I remember a vice president who got in on helping teach a spelling lesson (by telling a child the wrong way to spell a word). The conservatives, in the name of protecting the country, are doing all they can to destroy it. It really is sickening. I will go and watch the speech with my children. Self Identity Examples. But knowing how dishonest people can be, I will also print out the speech that is shown here and take it with me, to see what is added or taken out. We as parents are responsible for the things that our children here and see. I as their parent am responsible to raise my children, not the USA and not the President of the United States. So fine give his speech but I will be there to insure that education is all its about.

That is my God given right and responsibility. Endorphins And Major Depressive Disorder Essay. And I will say one thing about his speech. His facts are not exactly straight. It was not students who set in the same school seats as our children are that founded this country. Mothering Nature. It was grown men and Endorphins and Major Disorder women led by God who fought for marilyn et james dean their freedom, the good thing was that they instilled those values into their children. Speech was modified. I think, administration didnt expect this kind of uproar and they backed down on they real speech.

Anyways, the education of Essay, each individual starts at home. My GOD How can we ALLOW such venom to be spewed at self identity, our poor, innocent children. This speech absolutely drips with hateful, terrorist-loving, America-hating SOCIALISM! How DARE the and Major Depressive president tell kids to STAY IN SCHOOL and STUDY HARD. Of Human Growth. You know who ELSE stayed in school and Depressive Disorder studied hard. ADOLPH HITLER, thats who. SEE? THE REPUBLICANS WERE RIGHT. OBAMA IS WORSE THAN HITLER. You liberals are just blind to the horrors that this evil man has unleashed upon our precious little Republican snowflakes.

(And for those too dumb and/or conservative to get it Im kidding.) So what part of this speech had all the growth and development noecons panties in Depressive Essay a bunch? Oh thats right hes black thats why, So, let me see. conservatives dont want their children to strive to be better. Sounds about right for most conservatives who usually dont tnink for themselves. Thank You Mr. Using Learning Enhancing Student Proficiency. President for and Major Depressive Disorder Essay caring for our children and sociological on religion their education. This is a phenominal speech and any parent should want their child to hear it. Just know it is not about the speech. The people objecting it are those who are just ignorant and racist.

They refuse to accept the and Major Depressive fact that you are the president of the United States and they are ignorant enough to believe you can not have a positive influence on their children. How sad Its good teaching practice to have students follow up with an activity that helps students listen with a purpose, since they know they will be expected to write about mothering what they heard. Secondly, by relating the speech to their own lives , students internalize the message. For those who object to the essay prompts (how they were inspired or how they could help the president) certainly other prompts could be created.

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formal essay meaning Formal semantics and its recent developments. [This paper is in Endorphins Disorder, Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai), 119:1 (January 1999), 2-20.] Michigan State University. Like Spanish moss on a live oak tree, the scientific study of meaning in language has expanded in the last 100 years, and continues to expand steadily. In this essay I want to chart some central themes in that expansion, including their histories and their important figures. Our attention will be directed toward what is called 'formal semantics', which is the adaptation to monroe natural language of Depressive Disorder Essay, analytical techniques from logic.[1] The first, background, section of the paper will survey the monroe, changing attitudes of linguists toward semantics into the last third of the century. The second and third sections will examine current formal approaches to meaning. In the Endorphins, final section I will summarize some of the common assumptions of the approaches examined in the middle sections of the paper, sketch a few alternatives, and make some daring predictions. 'Meaning' is a broad term that can encompass any aspect of the potential for cognitive or emotive impact of speech on interlocutors.

However in Learning Enhancing Student Proficiency and Curriculum, linguistic semantics these days the cognitive aspects are the Depressive Essay, center of focus. On the other hand the pot theory, traditional distinction between semantics, as the study of the relation between linguistic expressions and what they are used to talk about (people and things, events and Disorder, situations, etc.) and pragmatics, as the study of anything involving the use of language, has become less certain and is in sociological perspective, fact lost in several different current approaches. 1.1 The Bloomfieldian era . Linguistics in the first half of the twentieth century was a newly developing discipline, with close connections to another developing social science, psychology. In the United States (and elsewhere) dominant figures in psychology were striving to Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay implement the principles of British empiricist philosophy, and especially logical positivism, which stressed attention to objective observable data in formulating scientific theories. Behaviorist psychologists at the time were also reacting against marilyn, the excesses of the mentalistic introspective approach which had dominated the field at the end of the Depressive Disorder, nineteenth century. Leonard Bloomfield, who was the most influential figure in linguistics in self identity examples, the United States in the first half of the twentieth century, was strongly influenced by behaviorism. Endorphins And Major Disorder! The beginning of the monroe dean, chapter of his classic text Language which is titled 'Meaning' reveals this influence: We have defined the meaning of a linguistic form as the Endorphins and Major, situation in which the speaker utters it and melting, the response which it calls forth in the hearer. . In order to give a scientifically accurate definition of meaning for every form of a language, we should have to have a scientifically accurate knowledge of everything in the speakers' world. The actual extent of human knowledge is Endorphins Depressive, very small compared to this. . The statement of meanings is therefore the weak point in language-study, and will remain so until human knowledge advances very far beyond its present state. (Bloomfield 1933, 139-140) Bloomfield's 'stimulus-response' model of mothering, meaning was as impractical as it was suited to his theoretical orientation. As Bar-Hillel described it, Bloomfield 'deplored the Endorphins, mentalistic mud into which the study of meanings had fallen, and tried to reconstruct [the field of linguistics] on a purely formal-structural basis' (Bar-Hillel 1954, 234-235). Bloomfield did not end his chapter on its second page, in despair, with the above quote.

He did find a way to talk, however briefly and informally, about the arbitrariness of meaning, polysemy and homonymy, semantic features, narrowing and broadening of word meaning, connotations of marilyn monroe et james, style and slang, and Depressive Disorder, taboo words, though not always using these terms. (It is significant that Bloomfield had nothing at all to monroe et james dean say about sentence meaning.) However the constraints of the crude behaviorist view of meaning he shared with other linguists of the time did prove to be a strong barrier to the development of linguistic semantics, a barrier which continued into the Chomskyan era. 1.2 The Chomskyan revolution . And Major Depressive! In 1957 a little book named Syntactic Structures was published by an obscure Dutch press, but was reviewed glowingly and at great length (33 pages, to of human growth and development be exact) by Robert B. Lees in Language -- the journal of the Linguistic Society of America. Noam Chomsky's revolution in linguistics had begun. Probably Chomsky's most important contribution, from the perspective of the and Major Essay, future development of linguistic semantics, was the Using Learning Objectives Student Congruency, institution of the generative conception of grammar, on which the goal of the grammarian was not to Endorphins and Major simply catalog elements from a corpus, or fixed quantity, of observed utterances, but rather to construct a completely explicit formula that would generate, or characterize exactly, all, and most importantly only, the infinitude of sentences of the language. Besides the nature, notable consequence of putting syntax at the center of linguistics, where formerly it had stood quietly at the back door, this change in goals would eventually help to draw the attention of semanticists toward the problem of describing explicitly how the meanings of sentences are derived from the Depressive Disorder, meanings of the words that make them up. However that development would have to wait for a few years, since the scientific study of semantics was still in the vexed state it had been in in Bloomfield's day. The primary issue about meaning at the time was whether or not intuitions about meaning should play any role in determining grammatical (= syntactic, morphological, or phonological) analysis. The worry was that if they were allowed to play a role, they would contaminate the analyses with 'mentalistic mud' (as Bar-Hillel put it). Of Human Growth And Development! In the final chapter of Syntactic Structures Chomsky argued that semantic intuitions should not play a role, concluding that '[t]here is. little evidence that intuition about meaning is at all useful in Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, the actual investigation of linguistic form' (Chomsky 1957, 94).

In the decades following, linguists found themselves unable to resist looking at meaning. Already in nature, the review article mentioned above, Lees had speculated about whether 'it could be shown that all or most of what is meant by Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay a sentence is contained in the kernel sentences from pot theory which it is derived' (Lees 1957, 394). A couple of developments in syntactic analysis[2] made possible the main tenet of the Essay, school of thought called generative semantics: that the identity, deep structure of a sentence constitutes a representation of Endorphins Essay, its meaning. Following the work of linguists such as Fillmore, Postal, McCawley, Ross, and of human growth and development, G. and R. Lakoff, deep structures took on some of the aspects of and Major Depressive Disorder, a representation in first order predicate logic, though in tree form. Negation, quantifiers, and adverbs were analyzed as sentence operators ('higher predicates'), in order to represent ambiguities such as those in (1)-(3): (1) Every woman loves one man. a. There is 5 stages of human growth and development, one man that every woman loves. b. Every woman loves some man or other. (2) Everyone didn't enjoy the play. a. At least one person did not enjoy the play. b. No one enjoyed the play.

(3) Mary isn't working in and Major Essay, the garden because it's sunny. a. Nature! Because it's sunny, Mary isn't working in the garden. b. It is Endorphins and Major Essay, not because it's sunny that Mary is working in the garden (but for some other reason). Thus (1), for example, would be assigned two deep structures, roughly as in (4). (4) a. [[one man]y [[every woman]x [x loves y]]] b. [[every woman]x [[one man]y [x loves y]]] However generative semanticists at the time did not worry about the task of assigning explicit truth conditions to deep structures. Rather the devising and justification of particular deep structures was seen as the end of the job of and development, semantics. Linguists at this time were working largely independently of philosophers of language and logicians. This may have been one of the less happy consequences of Chomsky's influence.

In the article cited above, Bar-Hillel suggested that linguists pay attention to developments in logic and try to incorporate a formal account of semantics into and Major Depressive their grammar, but Chomsky's rather sharp reply the following year asserted that 'the relevance of logical syntax and semantics' to the study of natural languages 'is very dubious' (Chomsky 1955, 36). This reaction of 5 stages of human growth, Chomsky's was explicitly based on the not uncommon idea that natural languages and formal languages are fundamentally different from each other, but it was also very much in tune with his larger project of overthrowing empiricist philosophy of Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay, language and melting, mind in favor of a return to Cartesian rationalism, as well as his personal style of publicly expressed arrogance and disdain for the work of others. Chomsky's first crops of linguistics Ph.D.'s began to appear in the mid 1960's, and thereafter increasing numbers of American linguists were taught by linguists who had been taught by Chomsky himself. These students, and their students, tended to inherit the idea that little of substantial value had been said about language in the centuries immediately prior to Chomsky. In the Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay, late 1960's and early 1970's several developments altered this picture.

1.3. Montague and formal semantics . The just mentioned assumption that natural languages like English and examples, Chinese are fundamentally different from the formal languages devised by Endorphins and Major Essay logicians was a cornerstone of a twentieth century dispute within British empiricist philosophy between formalists, who held that natural languages were too riddled with vagueness and ambiguity to be useful philosophical tools, and ordinary language philosophers, who held that natural languages not only could be excellent tools if used carefully, but also were rich repositories of the wisdom of generations of speakers. In the late 1960's two philosophers, one a well-known British ordinary language philosopher and the other a young American logician, effectively challenged this common assumption that natural languages and formal languages are very different from each other. H. Paul Grice, in his William James lecture series delivered at Harvard University in 1967, presented a systematic account of what he argued were only apparent divergences between a number of self examples, logical expressions and their natural language counterparts. Endorphins Depressive Essay! At roughly the same time[3] Richard Montague, in a series of papers with titles like 'English as a formal language' and 'Universal grammar', was making good on the following bold statement: 'There is in my opinion no important theoretical difference between natural languages and the artificial languages of logicians; indeed, I consider it possible to comprehend the syntax and semantics of both kinds of languages within a single natural and mathematically precise theory' (Montague 1970b, 222).[4] Montague's papers are highly formal and condensed, very difficult for ordinary humans (even logicians!) to read with comprehension. Fortunately it happened that a young linguist named Barbara Partee, an exceptionally intelligent and clear-thinking as well as personable individual who was in Chomsky's first (1965) class of Linguistics Ph.D.'s from MIT, took a job at UCLA, met Montague there, and developed an sociological on religion interest in his approach to natural language and its contrast with Chomskyan transformational grammar.

In lectures in the early 1970's, especially following Montague's untimely death early in 1971, Partee presented his work in such a way as to make it both comprehensible and appealing. 1974 was the fiftieth anniversary of the Linguistic Society of America and that summer a special Golden Anniversary Linguistic Institute was held at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, where Partee was now on the faculty. Partee's class on Montague Grammar was one of the highlights of this stellar Institute, and Depressive Disorder, was attended by many prominent linguists. Her 100 page article 'Montague Grammar and Transformational Grammar', which contained a kind of Using Learning Effectively: Enhancing Student Proficiency, 'do it yourself' kit for learning formal semantics, appeared in Linguistic Inquiry in 1975, and and Major Depressive Disorder, served as a kind of self examples, introductory text until the excellent volume by Dowty, Wall Peters appeared in 1981. Linguists were not entirely ignorant of relevant work in logic and philosophy of language at and Major Depressive Disorder Essay this time, but there was not the growth and development, kind of interaction that there is today. One reason noted above may have been the insular precedent set by Chomsky. And Major Depressive Disorder Essay! Another may have been the personalities of the generative semanticists, who would have been expected to be the linguists most interested in developments in monroe et james, logic and philosophy of language. In August of 1969 the philosophers Donald Davidson and Gilbert Harman organized a small colloquium of logicians and linguists in an effort to promote more fruitful interactions, but Quine (one of the and Major Depressive Disorder, participants) remarked in his condensed autobiography that '[t]he colloquium was a fiasco at bridge building' (Quine 1986, 38), and suggested that the personalities involved were the cause. However the volume that resulted from this small conference, Davidson Harman 1972, contained many classic articles (including contributions from both Partee and Montague) which were widely read by linguists as well as philosophers, and ultimately the work of Montague and Partee along with linguistically inclined philosophers like David Lewis and mothering nature, Robert Stalnaker had and continue to have a tremendous impact on the field.

Probably the most important byproduct of this interaction was that linguists became very aware of the Endorphins Depressive Disorder, fact that simply to represent meaning is not to give an analysis of it. This point was made most effectively by self identity examples David Lewis, who criticized Katz and Postal's system of Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay, semantic representation in terms of semantic features which they called 'markers' (Katz Postal 1964). Lewis pointed out that Katz and Postal were merely giving rules for translating English into mothering an artificial language that might be called 'Markerese', and he said: we can know the and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, Markerese translation of an English sentence without knowing the first thing about the meaning of the English sentence: namely, the conditions under which it would be true. Semantics with no treatment of truth conditions is not semantics. Enhancing Proficiency And Curriculum! (Lewis 1972, 169.) By studying ordinary predicate logic as well as Montague's more specialized work linguists became familiar with truth conditional model-theoretic semantics, in which interpretations for expressions, including truth conditions for Depressive Disorder sentences, are assigned relative to self identity a model. From the and Major Depressive, early 1970's to the present time, linguists and philosophers have worked closely and fruitfully together, attending and presenting papers at each other's conferences and mothering, publishing in each other's journals, and work in semantics, and especially formal semantics, has flourished in the United States. The journal Linguistics and Philosophy , which describes itself as focusing 'on issues related to and Major Depressive Disorder structure and meaning in natural language as addressed in the philosophy of language, linguistic semantics, syntax and related disciplines', published its first issue in 1977 and is now in its 21st volume. Other journals devoted to semantics have also begun to appear -- Journal of Semantics (which started in 1984), Natural Language Semantics (1993) -- as well as the prestigious conference series Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT), which publishes the proceedings of mothering nature, its annual meetings and is now (1998) in its eighth year.

A number of linguists and philosophers have joint academic appointments in Depressive Disorder, Linguistics and Philosophy (among them Richmond Thomason, Barbara Partee, and myself) and the linguistics program at MIT is housed in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, though it should be noted that Chomsky's resistance to formal semantics has continued unabated. 2. Current formal semantics: quantification . We will begin our investigation of the current scene in American linguistic semantics with a closer work at Using Objectives Enhancing and Curriculum Montague's work, including some of the problems he was able to formalize solutions to. In this work interpretation of noun phrases takes center stage, and that will continue when we look at other analyses of quantification in natural language. Then we will turn our attention to some other aspects of sentence meaning. 2.1. Montague Grammar . Endorphins And Major Disorder! The papers of Montague's cited above deal with 'fragments' of English. Montague's aim was not to construct a grammar for the whole language, but rather to give a complete (and completely explicit) syntax and semantics for an infinite subpart of the self, language which contained some constructions which pose interesting challenges for the semantician.

Chief among these are 'referentially opaque' or 'intensional' constructions. 'Referential opacity' is the term coined by Quine 1953 for the failure of substitution of coreferential expressions (expressions which refer to the same thing) to preserve truth in certain contexts. (See also Quine 1956 for an excellent introduction to this problem.) One major group of referentially opaque contexts consists of sentences about propositional attitudes, or people's psychological attitudes (such as belief, desire, hope, fear, knowledge) towards situations or states of affairs. (5a) below can be true and (5c) false, despite the fact that the Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, truth of (5b) means that the NPs Jocasta and Oedipus's mother are coreferential. (5) a. Oedipus wanted to marry Jocasta. b. Jocasta was Oedipus's mother. c. Oedipus wanted to marry his mother. Frege 1892 had argued that associated with expressions is Using Objectives Enhancing and Curriculum, a sense ( Sinn ) as well as a reference or denotation ( Bedeutung ), and Depressive Disorder, that in referentially opaque contexts expressions denote their sense instead of their customary reference. Although Jocasta and Oedipus's mother have the same denotation they differ in sense, and this explains why they cannot be freely substituted for one another in propositional attitude contexts. Montague's semantics formalized Frege's solution using the self identity examples, notion 'intension', which is a formal analysis of the Fregean concept of sense developed by Carnap, Kripke, Montague and others. Intensions are functions from Endorphins and Major possible worlds, or possible states of affairs, to denotations or referents (the latter also known as extensions).[5] ' Montague Grammar' came to denote the style of grammar presented in of human, Montague 1973, which has three components: a syntax generating a fragment of English (which in Montague 1973 included sentences about propositional attitudes), a complete syntax and model-theoretic semantics for a tensed intensional logic, and a set of translation rules mapping parsed English expressions to expressions of the intensional logic. In this way the logic serves to provide interpretations for the English fragment. The intensional logic was included in this paper for Depressive Essay perspicuity; in 'English as a formal language', Montague interpreted an English fragment directly. 2.2.

Generalized quantifiers . Chomsky has impressed linguists with the importance of accounting for what he calls the 'creative' aspect of human language -- the fact that we are able to produce and comprehend an unlimited number of novel utterances, sentences that we have never heard before. Compositionality is the semantic property of linguistic expressions that we assume is an sociological essential part of the explanation for this miraculous ability. The meaning of a phrase is compositional if it is determined by the meanings of its constituent expressions plus the way they are put together syntactically. Idioms are, by definition, phrases whose meanings are not compositional. If all of language were idiomatic in this sense, then language would have no creative aspect in Chomsky's sense. The formal languages of logic are strongly compositional, which means that expressions of a given syntactic category all receive the same type of interpretation and contribute in the same way to the interpretation of larger expressions of which they form a part. One striking way in which natural languages have seemed not to be strongly compositional is in the interpretation of noun phrases (NPs). NPs that are proper names, like Mary , have the same distributional properties as quantified NPs like every student , and sentences like those in (6) share their syntactic structure: b. Every student talks. However, while it is natural to say of (6a) that it is true just in case the individual denoted by the name Mary belongs to Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder the set of entities that talk, a parallel analysis is not possible for (6b), and traditionally sentences like (6a) have received very different translations into first order predicate logic from mothering nature sentences like (6b), as seen in (7).

b. x [Student(x) - Talks(x)] Probably the Endorphins and Major Essay, most impressive and far-reaching innovation in Montague's semantics came about because of 5 stages of human growth, his need to solve this problem, and that was the introduction of the generalized quantifier analysis of NPs. A generalized quantifier (GQ) is (an expression denoting) a set of subsets of Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay, some domain; on this view the traditional existential quantifier would be interpreted as the set of all non-empty subsets of the domain of marilyn monroe et james dean, discourse. Taking NPs to denote GQs, Mary would be interpreted as the set containing all and only those sets which have the person Mary as a member, and Every student would denote the set containing all and only supersets of the set of and Major Disorder Essay, students. In this way the subject NPs of (6a) and 5 stages growth, (6b) can both be seen as taking the and Major Disorder, predicate as an argument, and each sentence is marilyn monroe, true if and only if the set of Endorphins and Major Depressive, entities that talk belongs to et james the GQ denoted by the subject NP.[6] Besides enabling Montague to Endorphins Depressive solve the marilyn, strong compositionality problem, the GQ analysis of NPs allows a number of other improvements. Some of these were observed and Depressive, made use of by Montague; for example the generalization of conjunction and disjunction, which in ordinary predicate logic are strictly sentence operators, to apply also to NPs (as well as verb phrases). Self Identity! Following Montague's death other linguists and philosophers, beginning with the seminal work of Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, Barwise Cooper 1981, explored other avenues opened by the GQ approach and many papers and books have appeared detailing the results (see e.g.

Gärdenfors 1987 and Bach et al. 1995, and growth, the works cited there). A major thrust of this work is a change of focus from the NP to the determiner, which under the GQ approach can be easily treated categorematically (unlike the traditional logic syncategorematic analysis of quantifier expressions) and analyzed as denoting a function from sets (common noun denotations) to sets of sets (GQs) or, equivalently, as expressing a relation between sets -- the and Major Disorder Essay, set denoted by the common noun it combines with and the set denoted by the predicate. This shift in focus is very much in tune with current trends in Learning, syntax, where increasingly function morphemes have taken center stage, so that clauses are now taken to be complements of Endorphins Depressive, complementizers and so part of a CP category, and nominal phrases are complements of determiners and so part of Objectives Effectively: and Curriculum, a DP category. A number of Depressive Disorder Essay, formal semantic properties of quantified NPs came to light under the GQ approach. One of the most widely cited concerns 'entailingness' or monotonicity. In general an operator is upward entailing if a sentence containing it entails a sentence where the operator's argument is replaced with superset of its original argument, and self, downward entailing if the entailment goes in Endorphins and Major, the other direction.

Viewing quantificational determiners as functions from sets to pot theory GQs, and GQs as functions from sets to truth values, we have two operators to Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay consider -- the determiner and the GQ. The determiner every is downward entailing, as shown by the fact that (8a) entails (8b): (8) a. Every dog barks. b. Every spotted dog barks. On the other hand the GQ Every dog is upward entailing, as seen by the fact that (9b) entails (9a): (9) a. Every dog barks . b. Every dog barks loudly . Both some and some dog are upward entailing, while no and growth and development, no dog are both downward entailing, as the Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, reader may confirm by substituting them for every in the examples in (8) and of human growth, (9). Negative polarity items are expressions like any and Depressive, ever that are limited in their occurrence; they occur naturally in negative sentences, and in marilyn monroe, some other environments, but an exact statement of the constraint has proved elusive. An appealing hypothesis is and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, that they occur exactly in examples, downward entailing environments (see Ladusaw 1983), and this is Endorphins Essay, confirmed by the examples in (10) - (12).[7] ( 10) a. *Some dog who ever smiles barks. b. *Some dog barks at anyone. (11) a. No dog who ever smiles barks. b. No dog barks at anyone.

(12) a. Every dog who ever smiles barks. b. Melting! *Every dog barks at anyone. Despite the very exciting developments that arose as a result of the generalized quantifier analysis of NPs, there remain some questions about whether it is in fact the correct analysis. One challenge which we will look at in the next subsection has come, in Endorphins Essay, part, from Using Proficiency one of Partee's own students, and in connection with a new approach which considerably blurs the traditional distinction between semantics, as the study of words-world relations abstracting away from Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay contexts of nature, utterance, and pragmatics, as the study of the effects of context on interpretation. 2.3. Discourse representation and and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, file change semantics . In the early 1980s a rather different approach to 5 stages of human and development natural language quantification was proposed independently by Irene Heim, at the time one of Barbara Partee's students at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, and by Hans Kamp, a philosopher and logician. (See Heim 1982, 1983, and Kamp 1984.) One problem which Kamp and Heim were concerned with was providing an adequate analysis of what are called 'donkey sentences', as in (13):[8] ( 13) Every farmer who owns a donkey beats it. Such sentences actually present two problems. The first concerns the interpretation of the pronoun it . If we represent a donkey in Depressive Disorder Essay, traditional predicate logic, using the existential quantifier, then the it (represented by the final occurrence of y in (14) will be outside the scope of nature, that quantifier and will not be appropriately bound: (14) x [[Farmer(x) $ y [Donkey(y) Own(x,y)]] - Beat(x,y)] If, on the other hand, we use a universal quantifier for a donkey as in Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, (15), (15) x y[[Farmer(x) Donkey(y) Own(x,y)] - Beat(x,y)] we get a correct representation of the meaning of (13) but we have to explain how a donkey should sometimes be represented with a universal quantifier, but not other times, e.g. (16): (16) Mary owns a donkey.

Discourse Representation Semantics (DRS) (Kamp) and File Change Semantics (FCS) (Heim) both solved this problem with an approach to semantics which views the meaning of Learning Effectively: Enhancing Student and Curriculum, a sentence in terms of the impact an utterance of it has on the discourse of Depressive, which it is a part, in other words in terms of its context change potential. This is an approach that had earlier been urged by Stalnaker, in connection with the problem of presuppositions and presupposition projection. (See Stalnaker 1974, 1978.) Under this approach indefinite NPs are treated as introducing a new entity, represented by a free variable, into the discourse. (Definite NPs must be matched with an entity already introduced into the discourse.) When they occur in simple sentences like (17) they receive an et james dean existential interpretation in view of the Endorphins and Major Disorder, semantic rule for identity examples interpreting the entire discourse -- roughly, the discourse is true if there is a sequence of individuals meeting all the Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder, conditions that have been mentioned. In this way pronominalization relationships which cross sentences, as in (17), can also be accommodated. (17) Mary owns a donkey . It always brays when it wants to be fed. The pronouns in (17) are beyond the capability of traditional formal semantics, which follows traditional logic in providing interpretations sentence by melting pot theory sentence. If an indefinite NP occurs in a context like (13), that is within the scope of a quantificational operator, then it is not necessarily bound by the discourse but instead can be bound by that operator. Lets look more closely to see how this happens.

In the discourse oriented view of semantics, quantification breaks down into Essay a three part, or tripartite, structure. The first element of the structure is the quantificational operator, the second element includes any restriction on the range of quantification, and the third element (often called the 'scope') is the actual assertion associated with the quantifier. Sociological Perspective On Religion! If indefinite NPs fall within the restrictive portion of a quantificational structure, they inherit binding by whatever quantificational operator is involved. And Major Disorder Essay! So (13) receives a representation as in (18), where Q stands for 'Quantificational operator', R stands for 'Restriction', and S stands for 'Scope': (18) Q[every: x, y] R[Farmer(x), Donkey(y), Owns(x,y)] S[Beats(x,y)] One of the attractive features of this approach is that it can also handle examples of adverbial and adjectival quantification which were pointed out by David Lewis (see Lewis 1975).

Notice that (19) below means the same thing as (13), and would also be represented by (18), but this time the universal quantification is sociological perspective on religion, expressed by Disorder Essay the adverb, and there are two indefinite NPs -- a farmer and a donkey -- to fall within its scope. (19) Invariably, if a farmer owns a donkey he beats it. So what is the relation between the GQ analysis of NPs and the DRS/FCS type of analysis? Barbara Partee, ever the unifier, argued that both are correct, but possibly for 5 stages different kinds of NPs and different kinds of contexts. In Partee 1986 she argued that indefinite NPs in fact need three different types of representations, depending on the context in which they occur. Indefinite NPs with pronominalization effects as explored in DRS/FCS and exemplified in (17) above should be interpreted as denoting simple entities. Indefinites that function as predicate nominals, as in (20), should be analyzed as denoting sets of things, here, the and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, set of Student Proficiency and Curriculum Congruency, students. (20) Mary is Endorphins and Major Disorder, a student. And the indefinite NP in (21) needs to be regarded as denoting a GQ, since it is conjoined with a quantificational NP: (21) One student and all the teachers appeared at the rally. This is of human growth and development, not the end of the story, however; see Bach et al. 1995 for more recent papers on the relations between these two approaches.

And we must mention a third approach here, the dynamic semantics of Groenendijk, Stokhof, and others. (See Groenendijk Stokhof 1991, Groenendijk, Stokhof Veltman 1996.) Expressing a concern about the lack of attention to compositionality in the DRS/FCS approaches, Groenendijk and Stokhof have explored a modification of traditional predicate logic which will be able to interpret donkey sentences and cross-sentence anaphora. It is possible to equate the interpretation of a sentence in traditional predicate logic with the set of and Major Disorder Essay, assignments of values to variables which will satisfy it. Mothering! In the original formulation of the dynamic semantics approach interpretations are instead ordered pairs of assignments. Successive sentences in a discourse carry over information from previous assignments, so that examples like (17) receive the proper interpretation. In conditional sentences, which donkey sentences are formally, the same property holds between antecedent and Endorphins, consequent, so that in a logical form like (14) the rightmost occurrence of the y variable will be bound by the existential quantifier. This basic approach is modified and elaborated in Groenendijk et al.

1996. This completes our summary of current approaches to formal semantics which focus on the interpretation of NPs, especially quantified NPs. This summary has necessarily left out many details, alternative theories (such as situation semantics -- see Barwise Perry 1983) and particular analyses of constructions. For more information, see the many excellent papers in Lappin 1996. We turn now to look at some other aspects of self examples, sentence interpretation.

3. Aspects of and Major Disorder, eventualities . As noted above, by far the most attention in formal semantics has been paid to the interpretation of NPs. However philosophers and linguists have also been drawn to Learning Objectives Enhancing Student and Curriculum consider other aspects of sentence interpretation and now we will look at some of these. We will begin with a problem noticed by Depressive Disorder Essay Donald Davidson, and mothering nature, that will lead us to consider the nature of different kinds of eventualities as well as some more complexities of Endorphins Disorder Essay, NP interpretation. 3.1. Davidson's 'event' semantics . Davidson (1967) considered the fanciful example in (22): (22) Jones buttered the toast with a knife in the bathroom at midnight. In traditional predicate logic, clauses are wholly represented as a predicate plus its arguments -- one corresponding to each NP of the corresponding English sentence.

There are 5 NPs in (22) ( Jones , the toast , a knife , the bathroom , midnight ); hence to represent this sentence in Using Learning Proficiency, traditional logic we would have to have a 5-place predicate, something like Butter-with-in-at , to go with five arguments corresponding to Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay these five NPs. The sentences in (23a)-(23c) would have to have, respectively, 4-place, 3-place, and 2-place predicates. (23) a. Jones buttered the toast with a knife in the bathroom. b. Jones buttered the toast with a knife. c. Jones buttered the toast.

But intuitively there should not be four different predicates involved in the sentences in (22) and (23), but rather just one predicate -- butter . And all of these sentences could be different ways of describing the very same event. Nature! To put the Endorphins and Major Disorder, problem in more formal terms (the way Davidson described it), (22) entails each of the sentences in (23) (and they each entail the ones below them), but these semantic relations could not be captured in marilyn et james dean, traditional predicate logic. What Davidson proposed by way of a solution was to recognize events as a kind of and Major Depressive Disorder, entity -- that is, to add events to the other things (people, dogs, chairs, etc.) in the domain of discourse -- and to regard ordinary sentences as implicitly making reference to an event. Everything else in the sentence can then be seen as being predicated of this event. So (22) would introduce an event which is a 'Jones buttering the toast' type of event, and pot theory, this very event has other properties -- it occurred with a knife and in the bathroom, etc. The logical form of (22), according to Davidson, is something like (24),[9] where e is a special variable over events: (24) $ e [Butter(Jones, the toast, e ) With(a knife, e ) In(the bathroom, e ) At(midnight, e )] The logical form for (23c) would be (25). (25) is entailed by and Major Depressive Disorder (24) as well as by self the Davidsonian logical forms for Endorphins Depressive Disorder (23a) and (23b).

Linguists were not aware of pot theory, Davidson's proposals for a while after they were introduced, but more recently they have received a great deal of attention. Depressive! However, it is not clear whether all sentences should be seen as making implicit reference to an event, or whether we should take the term 'event' seriously. Not all sentences describe events. The sentences in (26) would all be called 'stative' -- they describe relatively unchanging circumstances which simply are. (26) a. Joyce knows Arabic. b. Four divided by two equals two. c. Dogs make good companions. Notice also that such sentences do not take time, place, and manner adverbials freely, as shown in (27). (27) a. ?Joyce knows Arabic at midnight. b. Using Proficiency Congruency! ?Four divided by two equals two in Depressive, the bathroom. c. Mothering! ?Dogs make good companions with a knife.

Kratzer 1996 has argued that sentences with stative predicates, like those in (26), should not be analyzed with a Davidsonian event variable, although other linguists have argued that all sentences should have an event variable (see Bach 1981, Higginbotham 1985). The next section looks at another difference between stative and non-stative predicates, one which is related to the interpretation of generic NPs. 3.2. Generic NPs . Sentences like those in (28) present an interesting puzzle: (28) a. Dogs are excellent companions. b. Depressive! Dogs are barking outside my window. Though the same word -- dogs -- functions as subject in both it seems to refer to two different things. (28a) is a statement about dogs in general, perhaps all dogs, while (28b) talks about some specific dogs, perhaps only two or three. Greg Carlson (another of Barbara Partee's students!) had a crucial insight in proposing a solution to this puzzle.

He shifted attention from the subject to the predicate and saw that the apparent distinction in NP interpretation correlated well with a difference in whether the verb phrase expressed a permanent property, or instead a more temporary property, of the subject. In Carlson's analysis (see Carlson 1977, 1980), dogs is taken to uniformly denote the kind dogs. Truth of (28a) requires the predicate to hold generally of individual dogs belonging to this kind. The predicate of (28b) on the other hand introduces (existential) quantification over temporal stages of individual dogs -- a concept which was inspired by W.V. Quine 1960. Although particular aspects of this analysis have been disputed (see Carlson Pelletier 1995 for monroe et james dean some current views of generics), Carlson's distinction between individual level and and Major, stage level predication has proved to have far reaching significance. One application is describing the difference between possible subsidiary predications in existential sentences in English. (29a), with an individual level predicate, is an ungrammatical sentence but (29b), which has instead a stage level predicate, is perfectly natural. (29) a. Objectives Proficiency And Curriculum! *There are dogs excellent companions.

b. There are dogs barking outside my window. Carlson's stage level predicates are all stative predicates, and the individual level predicates seem to be nonstative, but that leaves many unanswered questions. And Major Disorder! Are there just two types of eventualities? If not, what other kinds are there, and sociological, how are the Endorphins Depressive, different categories defined? These questions have not been answered yet in a way that everyone agrees on. Dean! We will look at some proposals in the next section. 3.3. Types of and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, eventualities . The German word Aktionsarten (singular Aktionsart) is self examples, commonly now used in the study of different types of eventualities, to distinguish aspect in this sense from the aspectual markers found on verbs in inflecting languages. Grammarians since Aristotle have commonly found more than just a two-way distinction in types of predicates. Aristotle himself pointed to a three way distinction among states like knowing Arabic, which are relatively unchanging, processes like running, in which there is activity of some kind going on, and actions like building a house, which have a natural culmination or termination point. The latter are now commonly referred to as telic eventualities.

Zeno Vendler, one of the earliest philosophers to pay serious attention to Endorphins Disorder Essay the kinds of linguistic evidence that motivates linguists, divided Aristotle's telic eventualities into two subcategories -- accomplishments like building a house, which are volitional and take some time to bring about, and what he called achievements like noticing a mistake or dying, which are nonvolitional and Objectives Student Proficiency Congruency, are referred to as though they were instantaneous. (See Vendler 1967.) Some of the grammatical distinctions in these four categories are illustrated in Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, the following examples, where know Arabic represents stative predicates, push a cart represents processes, build a house represents accomplishments, and notice a mistake represents achievements. (30) a. *Mary is growth, knowing Arabic/noticing a mistake. b. Mary is pushing a cart/building a house. (31) a. Mary knew Arabic/pushed a cart for a year. b. *Mary built a house/noticed a mistake for Endorphins and Major Essay a year. (32) a. *Mary knew Arabic/pushed a cart within day. b. Sociological Perspective! Mary built a house/noticed a mistake within a day.

However, not everybody has agreed with Vendler about the Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder, number of distinct categories he postulated. In the formal semantics for Aktionsarten presented in Parsons 1990, there are just two operators: Cul ('culminate') to represent Vendler's accomplishments and achievements, and perspective on religion, Hold, for sentences representing either states or processes. Bach 1986, on the other hand, subdivided eventualities into Depressive Essay six different subcategories, including two different types of states (dynamic and static), in addition to processes and several kinds of telic eventualities. There are other complications too; Verkuyl has stressed the importance of the effect different types of NP arguments can have on the aspect of a sentence. (33a) and (34a) would be classified as telic eventualities, whereas (33b) and melting pot theory, (34b) are non-telic processes. (33) a. Mary painted a picture (*for a year).

b. Mary painted pictures (for a year). (34) a. Endorphins! A guest arrived (*for an hour). b. Identity! Guests arrived (for an hour). Verkuyl 1993 proposes a formal semantics in which NPs as well as verbs are taken into account, and Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, eventuality types are determined compositionally for the sentence as a whole. 4. Summary, conclusions and prognostications . 4.1.

Commonalities . All of the formal analyses described and and development, summarized here have shared some common assumptions about the goals of semantics. One is that any proposed analysis of the semantic interpretation for a language, or a portion thereof, must be given in rigorous and explicit terms. Vagueness is to be avoided, and if possible nothing is to be left to the reader to fill in or guess at. The kind of Endorphins and Major Disorder, formal semantics adapted from the languages of logic has filled that bill extremely well. This explains the frequent use of special symbols in formal semantics. The special symbols can be defined explicitly so that there is no risk of misinterpretation or ambiguity. The symbols also make formal statements less lengthy and more readable, once one has learned their interpretation. Learning Effectively: Enhancing Student Congruency! Although the heavy use of special symbols initially presents somewhat of a formidable seeming barrier to formal semantics, ultimately it has more than enough value in clarity to make climbing over Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay this barrier well worth while.

Another common assumption was referred to above in the contradictory-sounding statement from Learning Objectives Effectively: Enhancing Proficiency Congruency David Lewis: 'Semantics without truth conditions is not semantics' (Lewis 1972, 169). Truth conditional semantics takes the core of meaning for a sentence to be given by some kind of explicit statement about Endorphins Disorder Essay what it would take for a sentence to be true. There are many arguments for this assumption. Learning Student Congruency! One is and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, that it makes clear how language is related to Learning Enhancing and Curriculum the things in the outside world that it is used to Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay talk about. Sociological Perspective! It also explains how people can use language to convey information to each other about the extra-linguistic world. And finally there is the fundamental fact that if someone knows what sentence means, then she knows what the world would have to be like for the sentence to be true -- i.e. the truth conditions of the sentence. Generally also if one knows truth conditions then one knows meaning too, but not always.

Necessarily true sentences like the Endorphins and Major Essay, truths of mathematics all have the same truth conditions -- they are true under any circumstances or in every possible world. Nevertheless these sentences don't all mean the Using Objectives Enhancing Congruency, same thing. Two plus two equals four does not mean the same as There is no largest prime number . So there is more to meaning besides truth conditions, but formal semanticians agree that giving truth conditions is an essential core to describing meaning. The approaches to semantics sketched above in §§2 and 3 also followed common logical practice in being model-theoretic. Model-theoretic semantics is a generalization of the Endorphins Depressive, truth conditional approach according to which truth conditions are given relative to a model. The semantics for a given language will specify what a model for the language must consist of self identity, -- what kinds of things it must have and how the Endorphins and Major, language is to be related to them. Then for a natural language we assume that a sentence is true if it is true relative to a model which matches the real world in the relevant respects. (See Kalish 1967 for discussion and historical notes.) 4.2. Perspective On Religion! Alternatives, formal informal . Endorphins And Major Depressive Disorder! Not all truth conditional semantics is mothering, model-theoretic. Endorphins And Major Depressive Essay! Donald Davidson has proposed a different style of semantics for natural language, which is also based on modern logic, but which takes the task of Using Learning Objectives Effectively: Enhancing and Curriculum Congruency, semantics for a language as divising a system which will generate specific statements of truth conditions which are called 'T-sentences'.

T-sentences were introduced by Tarski (see Tarski 1944), but the Endorphins and Major Disorder, 'T' stands for sociological perspective on religion 'truth' not for Endorphins Depressive 'Tarski'! A T-sentence for the English sentence Snow is white is given in (35). (35) Snow is white is true if and only if snow is white. (35) looks fairly vacuous, but part of that vacuous look is because the object language -- the language we are talking about the semantics of, is the same as the metalanguage -- the self identity examples, language we are using to Endorphins and Major Essay do the semantics with. When the pot theory, object language is different from the metalanguage, the T-sentence looks more significant: (36) Xuê shì baí de is true if and only if snow is white. Tarski proposed as a minimal condition on the adequacy of the semantic rules for a language, that they should allow the derivation (that is, the proof, in the logical sense) of the correct T-sentences for and Major Disorder all the sentences of the object language. Larson Segal 1995 have undertaken the task of working out the formal details of the T-sentence approach for a large fragment of English which includes generalized quantifiers, referentially opaque sentences, tense and aspect features, and many other interesting and challenging constructions. Their work is mothering, presented as a textbook for graduate students, but it is Endorphins Depressive Disorder, of great interest to professional linguists and philosophers of monroe, language as well. There are few alternatives to the approaches falling under the and Major Depressive Disorder, heading of formal semantics, and none that offer the same comprehensiveness. Using Learning And Curriculum! Probably the most well known is the and Major Disorder Essay, approach of Jackendoff -- see Jackendoff 1990, 1997.

Jackendoff's specialty is mothering, lexical semantics, about which formal semanticists have had the least to say, and his work, which offers many insights into the nature of word meaning, deserves careful attention. Depressive Disorder! Zwarts Verkuyl 1994 show how Jackendoff's work might be put in perspective, a formal framework. Fauconnier 1994, 1997 has put forward an approach invoking what he calls 'mental spaces', which are similar in some respects to possible worlds or situations but intended to be (representations of) human thought. And Major Depressive Disorder Essay! This work focuses in particular on unusual cases of reference such as those illustrated in (36). (36) a. Bill [meaning Bill's car] is parked on the next street. b. If I were you I would treat myself/me with a little more respect. Fauconnier's work tends to Learning Objectives Effectively: be less carefully worked out than Jackendoff's, and Endorphins and Major Essay, neither approach reaches the level of explicit comprehensiveness of the formal theories we have been looking at.

4.3. Future prospects . The relation between language and 5 stages of human and development, mind remains at present a very murky one. Chomsky's mentalistic revolution in linguistics put the study of Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, language, at least theoretically and according to Chomsky, under the umbrella of psychology. However in practice developments in linguistics and findings of psycholinguists have not always fit together comfortably, and I regret to have to report that linguists have sometimes seemed to Using Effectively: Student and Curriculum Congruency turn their back on and Major psycholinguists in such cases. Chomsky continues to throw up a wall, with one side marked 'competence' -- the static knowledge of language shared by speakers, and the other side marked 'performance' -- actual occasions of use of this knowledge to produce and comprehend utterances; and he seems to think that this wall will keep at bay any experimental findings which do not support his theoretical proposals. On the other hand there are some meager indications that eventually contrary evidence can penetrate. The early transformational model of grammar was not well supported by evidence from experiments on monroe dean language processing. While this evidence seemed to be ignored for many years, gradually Chomsky has replaced the Endorphins and Major Disorder, transformational model with another, and nature, it is possible that the Endorphins and Major Depressive, psycholinguistic evidence played a role in this replacement. Another issue is the relation of semantics to the rest of the mothering nature, grammar, on the one hand, and to the rest of cognition on the other.

In his current 'Minimalism' theory of grammar Chomsky sometimes seems to suggest that the rules of semantics are completely outside the grammar, and belong to aspects of general cognition. On other occasions, though, Chomsky uses examples of word meaning to argue for the highly specialized nature of linguistic competence and for its innateness. (See Chomsky 1995a,b.) This ambivalence is matched by other long standing controversies -- the controversy over whether word meanings are specialized and distinguished from and Major general knowledge about the world (the 'dictionary' view) or whether they are holistic and global, and encompass everything related to extensions (the 'encyclopedia' view), as well as the many disputes about whether certain aspects of sentence meaning (in a broad sense of 'meaning') belong to semantics or pragmatics -- aspects such as presupposition, conversational implicature, and illocutionary force. I predict that these issues will be resolved within the next fifty years, and that findings from the rest of the new field of cognitive science -- especially the subfields of psycholinguistics and language processing, neurolinguistics, and 5 stages of human and development, computational linguistics -- will be helpful in this resolution. I also believe that the evidence will ultimately indicate that the framework for semantic interpretation will share the unique nature that the rest of Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay, language seems to have, and that there will be a distinction between the linguistic lexicon and the encyclopedia of world knowledge. I base this projection in 5 stages, part on the fact that the principles of meaning, whether at the word level or at Endorphins Depressive the sentence level, seem to be as illusive and inaccessible to identity examples conscious reflection as the principles of syntactic structure or phonological interpretation, and in and Major, part on my belief that Grice and Montague were right, that the logical approach to language, in sociological perspective, which semantic and syntactic representations mirror each other, is justified for and Major Depressive Disorder natural as well as formalized languages.[10] [ 1] According to Carnap A theory, a rule, a definition, or the like is to be called formal when no reference is made in it either to the meaning of the symbols (for example, the words) or to the sense of the expressions (e.g. the sentences), but simply and solely to the kinds and order of the melting, symbols from which the Disorder Essay, expressions are constructed. (Carnap 1937, 1.) On this characterization it may seem like the melting, phrase 'formal semantics' should be a contradiction in terms! At the time Carnap and others believed that relations of Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder, meaning among sentences, such as entailment and contradiction, could and should be given an account in purely formal, that is syntactic, terms. 5 Stages Of Human! However with the development by Tarski and others of rigorous methods of semantic interpretation, on the one hand, and and Major Disorder Essay, the proof by Gödel of the nonequivalence of syntactic and semantic notions of logical consequence, on the other, 'logic' has come to encompass both syntax and semantics, and 'formal' has come to mean something like 'rigorous and explicit; modeled on methods in logic'.

In some ways the of human growth and development, term is a counterpart to Chomsky's term 'generative'. [return] [ 2] One of these developments was the discovery by Fillmore of the cyclic principle of transformational rule application (Fillmore 1963), which allowed the abandonment of generalized transformations and the incorporation of Depressive Disorder Essay, recursive rules in the phrase structure component. The other was the development by Katz and Postal of arguments for deep structure triggers of otherwise meaning changing transformations -- most notably the negation and Using Effectively: Enhancing, question rules (Katz Postal 1964). [return] [ 3] The earliest of these papers were published in 1970, but reference notes make clear that the Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay, ideas were already beginning to be presented in lectures as early as January and February of 1966 (cf. Montague 1970a, 188). [return] [ 4] The reader may have guessed from this quotation that the phrase 'universal grammar' had quite a different meaning for Montague than it has for Chomsky. While for Chomsky 'universal grammar' denotes the innate human language faculty, for Montague that phrase denoted the mathematical study of mothering, syntax and semantics. Montague was not unfamiliar with Chomsky's work, but he held it in some disdain because of its failure to pay sufficient attention to semantics. Endorphins And Major! Cf. e.g. Mothering! Montague 1973, 247. Depressive Disorder! [return] [5] Frege's solution to the problem of referential opacity, as formalized by Montague and of human, others, has not proved to be completely successful. One difficulty is Essay, posed by the fact that proper names do not seem to have a sense, the way descriptive expressions like Oedipus's mother do. (Kripke 1972 argued this at nature length and quite convincingly.) Nevertheless proper names cannot be substituted for and Major Depressive Disorder Essay each other in referentially opaque contexts, as seen in by the mothering nature, fact that (ia) can be true and (ic) false, despite the truth of (ib): (i) a. Ruth knows that Mark Twain wrote Tom Sawyer . b. Mark Twain was Samuel Clemens.

c. Ruth knows that Samuel Clemens wrote Tom Sawyer . There is a huge literature on this topic, which stretches back at least to and Major Depressive Disorder Essay the middle ages and continues to the present day. See Linsky 1971 for some of the standard 'classical' references on this topic, including Quine 1953 and Quine 1956, and Anderson Owens 1990 and self examples, Künne, Newen Anduschus 1997 for some recent papers. [return] [ 6] Although generalized quantifiers had been discovered prior to Montague's work (see Barwise Cooper 1981, 159), he was apparently unaware of this and Endorphins and Major Essay, did not use the mothering nature, term 'generalized quantifier' in his own papers. Also, because of the intensionality in his approach, rather than interpreting NPs as sets of Disorder, sets he actually interpreted them as properties of properties, but I am ignoring that complication for this presentation. [return] [ 7] Despite the Using Learning Objectives Student, appealing nature of Ladusaw's hypothesis about negative polarity items there are problems with this explanation. See Israel 1996 for a review of much of the literature on polarity, and an alternative hypothesis. [return] [ 8] Geach 1962 was the first to draw the attention of modern philosophers and linguists to and Major Depressive the problems presented by such sentences, though he cited a medieval literature on the subject. [return] [ 9] Of course the real logical form for examples (22) would have the NPs unpacked in Endorphins Disorder, familiar quantificational ways, which have been omitted here for clarity's sake. [return] [ 10] I would like to thank Aldo Antonelli, Jianguo Chen, Yen-Hwei Lin, Dick Stanley, and Luding Tong for help in sociological, connection with this paper. [return] REFERENCES Anderson, C. Anthony Joseph Owens, eds. Endorphins And Major Disorder Essay! 1990. Propositional Attitudes: The Role of Content in Logic, Language, and Mind. Stanford, CA: CSLI. Bach, Emmon.

1981. On time, tense, and aspect: An essay in English metaphysics. In Peter Cole, ed., Radical Pragmatics , New York: Academic Press, 63-81. Bach, Emmon. 1986. The algebra of events. Linguistics and Philosophy 9:1, 5-16. Bach, Emmon, Eloise Jelinek, Angelika Kratzer Barbara Partee, eds. 1995. Quantification in Natural Languages . Dordrecht: Kluwer. Bar-Hillel, Yehoshua.

1954. Logical syntax and semantics. Language 30:2, 230-237. Barwise, Jon Robin Cooper. 1981. Nature! Generalized quantifiers in natural language. Linguistics and Philosophy 4:2, 159-220. Barwise, Jon John Perry.

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What is an Armorbearer / Adjutant and What are the Duties? Copyrighted Material from the book Called Alongside Ministering in Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay, the Spirit of an Armorbearer by melting pot theory Pamela R Smith. And David came to Endorphins and Major Essay Saul, and stood before him: and he loved him greatly; and he became his armourbearer. In the 5 stages growth and development natural sense, an adjutant is one who helps a commanding officer with administrative affairs. The Online Etymology Dictionary defines an adjutant as a military officer who assists superior officers. It also defines it as, one who helps, a helper, to give help, give strength, support. According to Essay Easton Bible Dictionary : An armorbearer was an officer selected by generals and kings because of examples, his bravery, not only to bear their armor but also to Endorphins Disorder Essay stand by them in the time of danger. They were the adjutants of our modern armies. In the religious realm, an adjutant is one who helps, assists, and gives strength and support to pastoral leadership. It is self identity, one who is able to Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay consistently, willingly, be in place to be an aid to leadership. This applies to all those serving in self identity examples, any ministerial capacity, from the parking attendant to the associate minister. In order to Endorphins Depressive Disorder flow effectively, an adjutant should not be a babe in the faith.

Look at the original definition. It defines an adjutant as a military officer who assists superior officers. To qualify to identity examples be an adjutant, you must have a firm foundation. Endorphins Disorder Essay! Officers are leaders and are trusted with assignments. Before I can sing in melting pot theory, the choir, usher, work in and Major Disorder, the kitchen, serve in the nursery, etc., I must have firm biblical foundation. There are more fallouts in the choir, kitchen, and other departments where we place talent above calling and knowledge of marilyn et james dean, God. Why?

Often because we allow talented people to serve who have little root in the Word and they become easily offended (Mark 4:1617). It takes more than talent to serve as an adjutant. And Major Depressive Disorder Essay! You must also be called and have a biblical foundation before being released to monroe serve. And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground; who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with gladness; And have no root in Endorphins, themselves, and so endure but for a time: afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the words sake, immediately they are offended. An adjutant must also have a loving relationship with God. Student Proficiency! He must be the center of attention and the motivating factor as to why one is serving. God alone is to be worshipped.

Your love for God will help restrain you when you want to Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay go off on someone. Your love for God will keep you committed to marilyn monroe dean the assignment when you feel mistreated. Your love for God will help you stay focused on ministry. Duties of an Adjutant/Armorbearer. You may ask, What are my responsibilities and how do I fulfill them? I am aware that churches have different roles for their armorbearers; however, it is important to be aware that I believe we all should possess the spirit of an armorbearer; therefore, my book addresses different roles and responsibilities from the church secretary to the minister of music and more. Duties of Those with the Official Title of Armorbearer / Adjutant. Be available If your church leadership has officially appointed you to Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay the position of perspective, armorbearer / adjutant and you have accepted that role, then you must be available to serve in that capacity. You must understand the level of commitment that is required and Endorphins, follow through on your commitment. Identity! Be in Disorder, position Being in position is more than just showing up.

It entails being present spiritually, mentally and melting pot theory, emotionally. You must show up alert, spiritually in tune, emotionally stable and intact. Be willing Your willingness to Depressive Disorder Essay serve goes a long way. There are people in various roles but their heart is perspective on religion, not willing and Disorder Essay, their attitude reflects it. Melting Pot Theory! Skill is great but when service comes out of a begrudging (resenting having to Endorphins Depressive Disorder serve) heart it taints the gift even when coming from the most skillful (Exodus 35; 2 Corinthians 8:10-12). 5 Stages Growth And Development! 1 Chronicles 28:21 And, behold, the courses of the priests and the Levites, even they shall be with thee for Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, all the service of the house of God: and there shall be with thee for all manner of workmanship every willing skilful man, for any manner of service: also the princes and mothering nature, all the people will be wholly at thy commandment.

Understand and respect boundaries Your pastoral leadership is not to Endorphins Depressive Essay be seen as your running buddy. Relationship must be established, but you are not to call every night just to chat. Do not try to become too familiar with leadership. Do not overload leadership with your day-to-day personal life experiences. When in the car traveling to ministry engagements, do not assume that is sociological perspective on religion, your opportunity to Endorphins and Major Depressive receive personal counsel, prophecies, etcetera from your pastor. You are there to be an aid and give strength. Self! You want your pastor to be focused on the assignment at hand.

Use wisdom and do not allow the enemy to use you to distract or aid in draining strength from leadership. There are times when it is appropriate to share things and to seek prayer and advice from leadership and as you grow in your role as an armorbearer you will become more keenly aware of those occasions. Do not try to get to know your pastoral leadership or guest ministers in Endorphins and Major Essay, the fleshdo not seek to make fleshly connections. There are times armorbearers pick a guest minister up from the airport and try to develop a personal relationship so they can say, I know him. You should not be offended if the pastor does not call you daily. Keep the relationship in the correct perspective.

There is an armorbearer and pastor I know where the growth pastor does not make a move without the armorbearer. This includes making decisions, etcetera. And Major Disorder Essay! Their relationship is so out order that it has halted this pastors growth in ministry. You are not there to self identity fill emotional needs that God has not ordained for you to Endorphins do. Pot Theory! Know your role and function within the parameters in which God has ordained. Any emotional needs you have or your pastor has, should be submitted to God, allowing him to provide direction, but do not develop a soul tie with your leadership. It is dangerous and it will blind your perception and may hinder you from fully serving effectively. There are times when people seek notoriety; therefore, they may look for Endorphins Depressive, it through fleshly connections.

However, as an adjutant you should be keenly aware that there is immense spiritual warfare that goes on when a minister comes to your church to minister. 5 Stages Of Human Growth And Development! He or she is on an assignment from God. Some ministers may desire to Endorphins and Major Depressive Essay go out to dinner with you, but do not take it personal if a minister does not. Transport individuals to and from airport and pot theory, ministry locations. Serve water, food, etc.

Distribute handkerchiefs, etc. Intercede before, during, and and Major Depressive Essay, after services for nature, leadership. Be alert of surroundings. Where are the exits? Where are the restrooms, water fountains, etc?

What microphone do they have available for your leader to use? Do they have a beverage for your leader and is it at the appropriate temperature for your leader? (Many are unaware that drinking ice cold water before and immediately following preaching is not good for your vocal cord, it chills the mucous membrane causing you to be more susceptible to and Major Depressive Essay viruses, and it fatigues your voice; also speakers should not drink anything with caffeine in it, as it acts as a diuretic.) Will they be recording the service and if so, is your leader aware of any special requirements (such as time limits, etc)? If it is a training workshop developed by your leader, has appropriate approval been received from your leader to record the training? Who is in charge of the Using Effectively: Enhancing and Curriculum event and where is that person or designated representative? What are the seating arrangements? Is there designated parking for your leader? If not, where is the appropriate place to park?

Who is the pastor or ministry leader of Depressive Disorder Essay, where your pastor will be ministering? Is he/she present? If your pastor has teaching materials available on identity examples, CDs, etc, are you permitted to and Major Depressive set up a table? If so, where, when and if you are charging a price for the materials, has it been approved by the pastoral leadership of that church? If your pastor permits you to sit in the pulpit (ministerial platform), is there a space available for you? Be sensitive to the flowing of the Holy Spirit during service. Marilyn Monroe! Watch your pastor and and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, quickly make any necessary adjustments. Be ready to move at all times by staying focused to what is taking place as the Holy Spirit ministers to the people. Stand with leadership during altar call (this normally applies to those serving in the role of elder, associate minister, etc and it varies based on pastoral leadership preferences) . Be a warrior in the spirit (you must know how to do spiritual warfare without being taken out yourself and without drawing attention to yourself during service) . Be approachable (Romans 12:3).

Be courteous to others (Romans 12:9-10). Be honest in the representation of your leader (never use your pastors name carte blanche) . In other words, do not take advantage of your position by falsely insinuating your pastor has said something that he has not or that your pastor has made a request or has a need for something and it is not true. Marilyn Monroe Dean! Avoid the Gehazi spirit (Chapter 6 of the Endorphins and Major book). Some churches have their armorbearers serving as security guards. Some even carry weapons. This book does not address security-type armorbearers, as it is my belief that security should fall under an established Security Ministry for the church. Monroe! Security means risk management. Endorphins Depressive Disorder Essay! It involves doing background checks on marilyn, anyone who will be working with children. It entails verifying references to Essay avoid negligent hiring lawsuits. The Security Ministry is mothering, well-trained, equipped, and endeavors to provide the congregation with a safe place to worship. Safe Place encompasses many things including your parking lot and Endorphins and Major Depressive, other areas being well-lit, your entire facility being well-maintained, broken chairs thrown away, maintaining working fire-extinguishers, etc. Your Security Ministry must be knowledgeable of identity examples, emergency procedures, accident prevention, facility management, etc.

In biblical times, there were varying levels of ushers and some served as gatekeepers (equivalent to a Security Ministry) . Even today, a number of Endorphins and Major Disorder, churches have some of their ushers trained to serve within the mothering nature Security Ministry. We believe it is best to tap into any police or trained security guards you have as members of Depressive Essay, your church to serve on your Security Ministry. Book Copyright 2007 by Pamela R. Smith, All rights reserved. No reproduction of identity, this content without written permission from the author. Please leave any comments or questions. Dont forget, you do not have to register or submit any personal information if you do not desire to do so. Simply type your comment or question under the Leave Reply section and click post comment. We#039;d love to hear from you! You do not have to submit name or email, just your commment or question Cancel reply. It cleared up all questions I had to be a effective amour-bearer to the kingdom of God. Thanks. Hi,thank you so much for these guide lines dutie of a armorbearer it has help me so much,i save as a armorbear in my church,i thank the holy spirite for leading me to this website i believe it was for and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, a purpose i would like to learn more from u.Thank u for this great work u ar doing it very important to have knowledge about wat u doing, Thanks I really needed this.

God bless you and I thank the holy spirit for leading me here! #128578; Hello, i was reading the very scripture 1 samuel 16:21 when i felt the need to Using and Curriculum Congruency research the term armorbearer. Wow i fully understand the and Major definition now thanks to Using Learning Enhancing Student Proficiency and Curriculum Congruency this page. But thanks foremost tor the Holy Spirit leading me to Endorphins and Major Disorder Essay it. Praise His Holy name. Thanks u for being open about armorbearer it help me to understand it better now I know be blessed. Hi, Im Pastor Robert. Im really thankful for the articles I Read from you because it give s additional knowledge for me. May the Lord bless your ministry so much. I now have more knowledge of nature, this position thank you. Very interesting.

Thank you for Endorphins Essay, this article. The information is 5 stages of human growth, very helpful for someone moving into this role. Question: Another article that I read stated that because Armour-bearers were not mentioned in the new testament, this is Endorphins Depressive Disorder, not a valid role for the modern church and any organization having this position should be questioned. Comments / suggestions? Thanks for your inquiry. You wanted our feedback on an article you read that stated that because Armour-bearers were not mentioned in on religion, the new testament, this is not a valid role for the modern church and any organization having this position should be questioned. It is unfortunate that there is Endorphins Essay, so much abuse and misunderstanding behind the words armorbearer or adjutant. Clarity is Objectives Effectively: Proficiency Congruency, needed for us to understand the spirit of an armorbearer so we can better understand the function. Every deacon or minister or music, or whatever capacity one serves in and Major Depressive Disorder Essay, the church should have the spirit of an armorbearer.

People have been serving in perspective, the capacity for years, look at all those called alongside Apostle Paul. The problem is we have labeled it and abused it and it is often not pleasant to Endorphins Essay see up close, because it has become something totally different. I guess all I can comment in Using Objectives Student Congruency, response to your excerpt from the article is that if that is the and Major Depressive Disorder only basis we would not have many of the roles we have in the church today. 5 Stages Growth! To name a few others that are not specifically mentioned in the New Testament: Usher, musician, pastors aide committee, hospitality ministry, youth pastor, secretary, choir, praise team, associate minister, Sunday school superintendent, church board members, finance team (I guess Judas, but that was definitely not good internal controls) we can go on and on. Although not mentioned specifically by name, we can see the functions of many roles throughout the New Testament.

I guess Mary and Martha would be good examples of and Major, a real live hospitality ministry. One was busy serving, while the other one was trying to get her praise and marilyn monroe dean, worship on (smile). Though what we call secretary or administrative assistant is found a number of times in the Old Testament (Hebrew) such as in Jeremiah 36:12, we do not see that in the New Testament. However, when we read the New Testament we see the functions of secretaries. Essay! We now Apostle Paul travelled with assistants and we know Tertitus (called an amanuensis 1 Cor.

16:21) would fall into the category of what we call a secretary. The information gives much understanding. From what Ive seen so far, your work on the duties of the Armor-bearer/Adjutant is a welcome and Using Objectives Effectively: Student and Curriculum, much needed book. It addresses pertinent points, avoiding the more modern tendency to turn the position into Endorphins and Major Depressive Disorder an armed security post and stays focused on the more important issues: developing and assigning appropriately spiritually developed, experienced and committed servant leaders to assist under-supported and frequently overwhelmed senior leaders. Thanks so much for your biblically grounded, even-handed approach! May the Lord continue blessing you and nature, your efforts to inform the body of Christ overall, and particularly the and Major Disorder Church of Using Learning Objectives Effectively: Enhancing Student Proficiency and Curriculum Congruency, God in Christ! Pastor M. Mancha, M Div. Thank you #038; may God continue to bless you! i read the info on an armor bearer and its responsibilities i was well pleased in Depressive Essay, my findings thank you. awesome /continue on being obedient to the Lord JESUS CHRIST and mothering, have a blessed year.

Its good to ask if you are spiritually fit for the position, but I want you to know if God gave you the position He justified you fit, if man gave you the and Major Depressive Disorder Essay position then thats another question. Also its a process, stay prayerful and be sensitive in 5 stages of human and development, the spirit. @ Letese burg. I am learning how to serve as an Endorphins Depressive Disorder adjutant and doing the research on today its a very high rank position that I am honored to have but my question to myself is spiritually am I fit I want the position but I dont want to fell my leader. If God gave you the position He already equipped you, if man gave you the position well that another question. Your job is mothering, please God not man.

The spirit of the Lord will be your help, get as much training and teaching as you can, be humble. With love. I would like to know can I use these as an guideline for Adjutants and Armorbearers in my ministry because this sums up everything? Yes, you are welcome to use the information as a guideline as long as you always cite the Depressive Essay source.